Competitive Exams: World: Mineral and Power Resources and Industries




  • Chikugo (N. W. Kyushu), Ishikari (Hokkaido), Johan and Ube (Honshu). Has to import coking coal. High Production costs and low quality coal makes mining unprofitable and Japan relies heavily on imported oil and on HydroElectric Power. Lignite Deposits are fairly well scattered throughout Japan.

Hydro Electric Power (H. E. P.)

  • Lack of coal and oil, a rugged topography well distributed heavy precipitation and an enormous industrial demand has lead to the development of H. E. P.

  • It's unstable geological situation with frequent earth quakes are a deterrent to the building of really large dams even if the mountain streams were large enough to warrant them.

  • H. E. P plants In Japanese Alps.


  • Thermo Electricity It contributes twothird of Japan's total energy requirement. IronOre Imported from Philippines, Malaysia, India and Australia.
  • Copper Japan produces appreciable quantities but has started importing now. Found in north and north east of Tokyo and northern Shikoku.
  • Zinc Central and Northern Honshu
  • Japan also produces Lead, Gold and Sulphur


  • Shortage of industrial raw materials and solid fuels.

  • Indented coastline and many large ports

  • Technically biased educational system.

Industrial Regions

  1. Keihin Region (Kwanto Plain)

    1. Tokyo Electrical Engineering

    2. Yokohama Ship building, oil refining, Petrochemicals-KawasakiMarine engineering, cement, glass.

  2. Hanshin (Kinki Plains) Industrial conurbation comprising of Osaka Textiles. Kobe Shipbuilding, Oil refining, and Petrochemicals. Kyoto Handicrafts, Porcelain.

  3. Ice Bay Region (Dominated by Nagoya) (Nobi Plains).

    1. Nagoya Textiles Machinery, Automobiles, Locomotive, Aircraft.

    2. Hamamatsu Musical Instruments

  4. Kitakyushu (Northern Kyushu) Based on Chikugo Coal fields.

    1. Centered at Yawata Kokura and Moji.

    2. Extends southward to Fukuoka and Nagasaki.

    3. This region specializes in Steel, Ships, Machine parts and Textiles.

  5. Other Industrial Cities

    1. Muroran Iron and Steel. Akita and Nigata Oil refining.

    2. Hiroshima Engineering

    3. Hakodate and Sapporo (Hokkaidu) also have ⇐ ome industries.



  • A1 types of coal are found. Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. Also in Gansu, Henan, Hebei and Shandong. Manchurian coal fields including those at Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang. Szechwan (Sichuan) basin. Coal mining centres Fushun, Fuxin, Kailan, Hegang HydroElectricity-Projects both for power and flood control.

  • Several dams along Hwang Ho. Other projects on Yang Tze Kiang, Si kiang and some in Manchuria.

Iron Ore

Largest deposit Manchurian deposits at Anshan Other regions Maanshan and Tayeh (Lower Yangtze) -Iron Steel Industries are centered at Anshan, Taiyun, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongquing, Guangzhou, Shandong, Xinjiang, Hainan Islands. Copper Western and SW China Tungusten

  • One of the largest producers in the world-Hunan and Jiangxi Lead, Manganese, and rock salt are also found. Kaolin or China clay, a fine clay formed by the alteration of granite by metamorphism is found in huge quantities.

Industrial Regions

  1. Manchuria (Iron Steel Engineering)

  2. Centered at Anshan Fushun Shenyang. These three forms Mukden Triangle 2, Tianjin Beijing

  3. Tianjin Shipbuilding, Chemicals

  4. Beijiing Light Industry, Textiles and Machine making 3. Shanxi Baotou Based on China's largest coal field Shanxi and Shaanxi. Centered at Baotou, Taiyuan and Datong. These three are centers of Iron and steel industry. Lower Yangtze Kiang (Oldest industrial centre). Shanghai Cotton Textile (also a premier port).

  5. Wuhan Area (Central Yangtze Kiang and Han Basin). Centered at Wuchang Hanyang Hankou. These three forms the conurbation of Wuhan Main industries in this region are Metallurgy, Heavy industries, Ship Building, Railway Equipment.

  6. Si Kiang Delta Region Centered at Guangzhou (Canton Iron and Steel Shipbuilding Textiles, Chemicals, Brewing, Handicrafts, Food processing).

  7. SichuanCentered at Chongquing and Chengdu Iron and steel, Textiles, Pulp and Paper

Other industrial cities In the mountainous Yunnan and the empty lands of Xinjiang (Sinkiang) isolation hamper industrial development despite the rich mineral resources. Some towns, such as Anning, Kiuchvan (Iron and steel) Yumen and Hangzhou (oil refining) and Kunming (Chemicals, textiles) have industrial development.


HEP North Korea Shuifeng Dam across Yalu River Iron Ore North Korea Tungsten North and South Korea

Mica South Korea

Industries (South Korea)

  • Taegu Electronics

  • Pohang Iron and steel

  • Ulsan Petrochemical, Shipbuilding

  • Changwon Machinery

  • HONG KONG Light Industries

South East Asia


  • Hongay Vietnam-Omibilin (Sumatra) Indonesia.

  • Samarinda (Kalimantan) Indonesia

  • Cebu Island Philippines

  • Krabi (In kra Peninsula) Thailand

  • Batu Arang and Sabah Peninsular Malayasia H. E. P Abu Bakar Dam Cameroon Highlands (Peninsular Malaysia) Iron Ore Malaysia and Philippines

  • Copper Myanmar, Sarawak (Malaysia) and Irian Jaya (Indonesia)


Malaysia (all fields in peninsular Malaysia) Kinta Valley, Larut Plain, Kelang Valley, Jelebu Valley. Smelting is done at Penang and Singapore Thailand Kra Peninsula, Pukhet (off shore Island) Indonesia Banga, Billiton, Singkep.

Also found in Burma and Vietnam.

Nickel Philippines and Indonesia

Tungsten Thailand Gold Philippines Chromium Philippines


Indonesia: Sumatra Palembang, Jambi (Refineries) and Singapur; Kalimantan Balikpapan, Tanjung; Irian Jaya Klamono Brunei Seria, Kuala, Belait Myanmar Singu, YenangYaung, Indaw, Minbu (Syriam refineries and Yangon refineries)

Malaysia Off shore Sarawak, East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia


  • Singapore-Oil Refinery, Electronic Assembly (Processing of Rubber, Copra, and Lumber) -ShipBuilding-Tourism

  • Thailand Automobile Assembly plants, Electrical Items

  • Malaysia Furniture, Soap, Fertilizers, Electronic Goods.

  • Philippines Paper and Wood Products, Electrical Appliances, Fishery Industry

West Asian And Other Asian Countries


  • Iran Kermanshah-Pakistan Quetta and Kalabagh

Hydro Electric Projects (HEP)

Pakistan Sukkur, Mangla, Guddu, Tarbela, Taunsa, Triple Canal Project, Kotri


Turkey Guleman, Tithye Petroleum

  • Major pipelines from inland fields or field on Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Coast.

  • Saudi Arabia Dammam, Dharan Exported to Ras Tanura (Bahrein) or Port Saida. Oil refineries at Ras Tanura and Damman. Iran Masjid-E-Sulaiman, Nafi-I-Shah, Lali, Agha-Jari (send to Abadan on persian gulf and Kermanshah for refinery)

  • Iraq Alaband, Khanaquin Kirkuk. Refinery at Daura, near Baghdad. New fields Gulf coast west of Basra and Mosul.

  • Mediterranean ports Banias (Syria), Tripoli (Lebanon), Haifa (Israel), KuwaitBurgan oilfields (exported as crude oil through Mina Al Ahmadi Port Others Bahrein, Qatar, Abu Dhabi, U. A. E).