Competitive Exams: World regions of North America


United States of America

  • Grown mainly by extensive mechanized farming.

  • Average yield is not high.

  • Kansas is the leading wheat producer.

  • Leading wheat states Kansas, North Dakota, Nebraska and Montana

Varieties and their regions

  1. Hard Red spring wheat N and S Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota

  2. Hard Red winter wheat Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and N. Texas.

  3. Soft Red winter wheat Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania and most of mid Atlantic states.

  4. Soft White wheat Region Around Michigan and Huron and on the west coast (California, Columbia plateau, Oregon and Idaho)


  • Almost all the wheat from Canada is spring wheat and 95% of the total comes from the Prairie provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba.

  • Corn leads all other crops in total acreage and a highly developed Corn belt has evolved south of the great lakes

  • It is the largest maize producer and exporter (especially to Japan and North West Europe)

  • Corn belt includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota.

  • Corn belt is by no means a monoculture region, but it is a highly developed mixed farming region.

  • One of the most prosperous agricultural regions of the world.

  • Iowa leads in corn production followed by Illinois

  • Com and animals have led to the development of such large cities as Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha, Cincinnati and Kansas City

Factors that have contributed to the rise of Canadian Prairies

  1. Availability of extensive cheap land

  2. Extensive Railway network

  3. Fertile Prairie soils (Chernozem)

  4. Undulating Topography

  5. Suitable Climate (early melting of ice because of Chinook Wind results in longer growing season)

  6. Access to Markets (handled through Winnipeg, Port Arthur and Fort William on L. Superior and the Great lakes St. Lawrence water ways) Corn (Maize) USA


  • Several important changes have altered the entire economy of the old cotton belt. The most important has been the westward shifts in cotton growing. Advantage of west fertile soils, climate and labour. Texas is the largest producer.

  • Sheep are relatively unimportant

  • Lamb is not a favorite meat in USA.

  • The sheep are kept in the drier western states, the greatest concentration being on the Edward Plateau of Texas

  • Woolen textile industry is located in North England (extreme North East USA)

Dairy Farming

  • The chief dairying region is the Hay and Dairy Belt south of the Great lakes in the states of Wisconsin, Dakota and Minnesota.

  • Wisconsin leads every state in almost all categories of dairy products.

Beef Cattle

  • Greatest beef producer in the world.

  • Large local demand and therefore little surplus for export.

  • Cattle are raised in W. Prairies and then taken to cattle fattening areas.

  • Processed in towns such as Chicago, St. Louis. Omaha and Kansas City.


  • Most of America's Pigs are found in the Com Belt

  • Americans and Canadians consume a great deal of pork.

  • Greatest rearing area Corn Belt (Iowa and Missouri)


Canada and USA: North West Atlantic Fishing Grounds:

  1. It was traditionally the world's richest Cod fishing region

  2. Centered on the Grand Banks

  3. Fishes like Cod, Herring and Mackerel are caught in the surface waters (Pelagic). Halibut, Haddok, Hake and Flounder in the deeper waters (Demersal).

  4. Inshore fishing shellfish and crustaceans (important in the urbanized North East).

Reasons for the development of fishing

  • Vast continental shelf
  • Convergence of cold Labrador and warm Gulf Stream off New Foundland
  • Lack of natural resources on land.
  • Cool temperate climate not only favors large scale commercial fishing, but also the preservation and storage of fish.

Fishery and Marine industry

  1. Important in the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island)

  2. North East Pacific-Alaska to California.

    1. Salmon most valuable species, but greatly depleted.

    2. Amongst Demersal (found in deep water) fish Hake is important

    3. In recent years, catches of Alaska Pollack has become important.

    4. Tuna and Sardine Off California

United States of America

  • Leading fishing states Alaska, Massachusetts, California, Delaware and New Jersey

  • Major fishing ports Gloucester, New Bedford, Baltimore

  • Crustaceans and Shellfish are an important part of the American fishing industry.


  • Salmon, Cod and Lobsters are important fishes.

  • Cod at Newfound land and Lobsters at Nova Scotia

  • Salmon New Brunswick and Nova Scotia

  • Fishing in British Columbia is centered at Vancouver-Inland fisheries R. Skeena, R. Fraser, Gr. Lakes, Gr. Slave lakes (Salmon, Trout, Eel).

  • Canada largest producer of Newsprint Pines (Centered at Quebec, Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa).

  • Bowater's plant of Comer Brook is probably the largest newsprint mill in the world.