Competitive Exams: Languages

Languages

  • Abaza Language: Language spoken primarily in the western part of the Caucasus Mountains and in northeastern Turkey. Abaza is related to Abkhaz, Adyghian, Kabardian (Circassian), which constitute the AbkhazoAdyghian, or Northwest Caucasian, language group.
  • Gutob Language: Also called Gadaba, language spoken in India, one of the Munda languages, belonging to the AustroAsiatic family of languages. Dialectsinclude Gadba and Gudwa. Gutob is spoken in the Koraput district of Orissa and the Srikakulam and Vishkhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Sre language: Dialect spoken in Vietnam, one of the approximately nine dialects of the Koho language, belonging to the South
  • Bahnaric sub branch of the Bahnaric branch of the Mon Khmer family, which is a part of the Austroasiatic stock.
  • Evenk Language: Also called Evenki, also spelled Evenky, formerly Tungus one of the largest members of the ManchuTungus language family (a subfamily of the Altaic languages).
  • Chuang language: Pinyin Zhuang language spoken by the Chuang ethnic minority in southern China, mostly in the Chuang Autonomous Region of Kwangsi.
  • Ket language: One of two surviving members of the Yeniseian family of languages spoken by about 500 peopTe living in central Siberia (The other, a moribund close relative called Yug [Yugh], or Sym, is sometimes considered a dialect of Ket.),
  • Afrikaans language: Also called Cape Dutch, West Germanic language of South Africa, developed from 17thcentury Netherlandic (Dutch) by the descendants of European (Dutch, German, and French) colonists, indigenous Khoisan peoples, and African and Asian slaves in the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope. Afrikaans and English are the only Indo European languages among the many official languages of South Africa.
  • Aluct Language: Aleut Unangam Tunuu, one of two branches ofthe EskimoAleut languages.
  • Amoritc Language: One of the most ancient of the archaic Semitic languages, distributed in an area that is now northern Syria.
  • Amharic language: Also called Amarinya, Amharinya, or Kuchumba, one of the two main languages of Ethiopia (along with the Oromo language).
  • Avestan language: Also called (incorrectly) Zend Language, eastern Iranian language ofthe Avesta, the sacred book of Zoroastrianism.
  • Aramaic dialects survived into Roman times, however, particularly in Palestine and Syria.
  • Brahui Language: Isolated member of the Dravidian family, spoken in western Pakistan.
  • Breton Language: Breiza member of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages, spoken in Brittany in northwestern France.
  • Burushaski Language: Language spoken by the Burusho people living in the Gilgit territory of northwestern Kashmir. Burushaski is a “language isolate,” not known to be related to any other language of the world.
  • Chakchiquel Language: Member of the Quiche group of Mayan languages, spoken in central Guatemala. Carian language: Ancient language spoken in the southernmost area of western Anatolia.
  • Catalan language: CatalaRomancc language spoken in eastern and northeastern Spain, chiefly in Catalonia and Valencia. It is also spoken in the Roussillon region of France, in Andorra, and in the Balearic Isles.
  • Palauan Language: Major language of Palau, in the western Pacific Ocean. It is classified as belonging to the eastern branch of the Austronesian (MalayoPolynesian) family of languages.
  • Cebuano Language: Also spelled Sebuano, also called Sugbuhanon, member of the Western, or Indonesian, branch of the Austronesian (MalayoPolynesian) language family.
  • Cherokee Language: a North American Indian language, member of the Iroquoian family, spoken by the Cherokee people originally inhabiting Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
  • Coptic Language: AfroAsiatic (formerly HamitoSemitic) language that was spoken inEgypt from about the 2nd century Ad and that represents the final stage of the ancient Egyptian language. Cornish Language: a member of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages, formerly spoken in Cornwall in southwestern Britain; it became extinct in the 18th or early 19th century as a result of displacement by English. Dari language: Member of the Iranian branch ofthe IndoIranian family of languages; it is, along with Pashto, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. Dari is the Afghan dialect of Farsi (Persian).
  • Eblaitc Language: Archaic Semitic language, probably the most ancient to survive in substantial form, dating from the third quarter of the 3rd millennium BC. As a Northern Central Semitic language, Eblaite is affiliated with the AfroAsiatic (formerly HamitoSemitic) family of languages such as Old Akkadian. Llaniite language: Extinct language spoken by the Elamites in the ancient country of Elam, which included the region from the Mesopotamian plain to the Iranian Plateau.
  • Etruscan Language: Language isolate spoken by close neighbours of the ancient Romans.
  • Dogon language: Language of the NigerCongo language family spoken by some 600, 000 Dogon people in northeastern Mali to the east of Mopti and along the border between Mali and Burkina Faso.
  • Yukagir Language: Language spoken by not more than a few hundred persons in the Kolyma River region of Sakha (Yakutiya) republic of Russia. Yucatec language: Also called Maya, American Indian language of the Mayan family, spoken in the Yucatan Peninsula, including not only part of Mexico but also Belize.
  • Chuvash language: Member of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family, spoken in Chuvashia and nearby regions along the middle course of the Volga River, in the central part of European Russia.
  • Yoruba language: One of a small group of languages that comprise the Yoruboid cluster of the Defoid subbranch of the BenueCongo branch of the NigerCongo language family. The other Yoruboid languages include Igala and Itsckiri.
  • Wolof Language: An Atlantic language of the Niger Congo language family genetically related to Fula and Serer.
  • Volscian Language: An Italic language or dialect, closely related to Umbrian and Oscan and more distantly related to Latin and Faliscan.
  • Votic Language: Member of the Finno Ugric group of the Uralic language family, very nearly extinct.
  • Welsh Language: Cymraeg, member of the Brythonic group of the Celtic languages, spoken in Wales.
  • Wu Language: Variety of Chinese spoken in southeastern Kiangsu Province and in Chekiang Province by more than 8 percent of the population of China. Major cities in which Wu is spoken include Taichou, Shanghai, Soochow, Ningpo, and Wenchou.
  • Xhosha Language: Xhosa also spelled Xosaa Bantu language spoken by seven million people in South Africa, especially in Eastern province. Xhosa is a member of the Southeastern, or Nguni, subgroup of the Bantu group of the BenueCongo branch of the Niger Congo language family. Other Southeastern Bantu languages are Zulu, Swati (Swazi), Sotho, Tswana, Venda, and Ndebele.
  • Sakha or Yakut Language: Also called Yakut language or SakhaTylamember of the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic language family, spoken in northeastern Siberia (Sakha republic), in northeastern Russia.
  • Yiddish Language: The language of Ashkenazic Jewry (central and eastern European Jews and their descendants).
  • Tagalog language: Member of the Central Philippine branch of the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) language family and the base for Pilipino, an official language of the Philippines, together with English.
  • Syriac Language: Semitic language belonging to the Northern Central, or Northwestern, group; it was an important Christian literary and liturgical language from the 3rd through the 7th century AD.
  • Synthetic language: Any language in which syntactic relations within sentences are expressed by inflection (the change in the form of a word that indicates distinctions of tense, person, gender, number, mood, voice, and case) or by agglutination (word formation by means of morpheme, or word unit, clustering). Latin is an example of an inflected language; Hungarian and Finnish are examples of agglutinative languages. Highly synthetic languages, in which a whole sentence may consist of a single word (usually a verb form) containing a large number of affixes are called poly synthetic. Eskimo and many American Indian languages are polysynthetic.
  • Thracian Language: Language spoken by the inhabitants of Thrace primarily in pre Greek and early Greek times.
  • Tigre Language: Semitic language of the Tigre people of northwestern Eritrea and smaller areas of neighbouring Sudan.
  • Tigrinya Language: Also spelled Tigrigna, also called Tigray, or Tigrai, Semitic language of the Tigray people of northern Ethiopia and central Eritrea.
  • Tulu Language: Also spelled Tugu, language of the Dravidian family, spoken in southern Karnataka (formerly Mysore) state, India.
  • Sedang Language: Also called Roteang, Hadang, Hatea, or Hoteang, North Bahnaric language of the MonKhmer family, which is itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Shan Language: Shan Tai language spoken in the northern and eastern states of Myanmar (Burma) and belonging to the Southwestern group of the Tai language family of Southeast Asia.
  • MonKhmer Language: Language family included in the Austro-asiatic stock. Mon Khmer languages constitute the indigenous language family of mainland Southeast Asia. They range north to southern China, south to Malaysia, west to Assam state in India, and east to Vietnam.