Competitive Exams: Regional Human Geography: I


Ethnic groups Javanese 45 percent Sundanese 14 percent Madurese 8 percent Coastal Malay 7 percent Other (350 distinct ethnic groups) 26 percent.

Languages Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch, Sundanese, Arabic, Chinese, and local dialects, especially Javanese (about 300 languages and dialects are spoken).

Religious affiliations Muslim 87 percent Protestant 6 percent Roman Catholic 3 percent Hindu 2 percent Buddhist 1 percent Other 1 percent.


Ethnic groups Persian 60 percent Azerbaijani and other Turkic 25 percent Kurdish 7 percent Lur 2 percent Baluchi, Turkmen, and other 6 percent.

Languages Persian (Farsi) and Persian dialects 58 percent Turkic and Turkic dialects 26 percent Kurdish 9 percent Lluri, Balochi, Arabic, Turkmen, and other 7 percent.

Religious affiliations Shiite Muslim 93 percent Sunni Muslim 6 percent Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and BahA'i 1 percent.


Ethnic groups Arab 7580 percent Kurds 1520 percent Turkmen, Assyrian, Jews, and other 5 percent.

Languages Arabic (official), Kurdish (in Kurd occupied areas), Assyrian, Armenian.

Religious affiliations Muslim 96 percent Shia 6065 percent Sunni 3136 percent Christian 3 percent Other 1 percent.


Ethnic groups Celtic, English

Languages Irish (Gaelic) is spoken mainly in areas along the western seaboard. English is the language generally used. Both Irish and English are official languages.

Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 85 percent Church of Ireland (Anglican) 4 percent Protestant 1 percent Nonreligious 3 percent Other 7 percent.


Ethnic groups Jewish (Israelbom 62 percent, Europe/Americas/Oceara born 26 percent, Africabora 7 percent, Asiaborn 5 percent) 82 percent Non Jewish (mostly Arab) 18 percent.

Languages Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English

Religious affiliations Jewish 77 percent Muslim (mostly Sunni Muslim) 12 percent Christian 5 percent Nonreligious 4 percent Other (including Druze, Bahai) 2 percent.


Ethnic groups Italian (includes small clusters of German, French, and Slovene Italians in the north and Albanian and Greek Italians in the south), Sicilian, Sardinian.

Languages Italian (official), German, French, Slovenian, Ladin, regional Italian dialects.

Religious affiliations Roman Catholic 98 percent Other 2 percent.