15th Century Religion

Shankaracharva:

  • His philosophy is called Advaita Vedanta, Kevala Advaita, and Uttara Mimamsa

  • wrote commentaries on Upanishads, Brahmasutra and Bhagawat Gita

  • His Guru was Govinda Yogi,

  • Founded Mathas at four different directions:

    • Dwarka: West,

    • Puri: East,

    • Sringeri: South,

    • Badrinath: North

  • Panchyatana (Five Gods)

  • Kumarallia and Sankara are Smartas (traditionalist)

  • Kumarallia elucidated the philosphy of ritualism (Mimamsa)

Ramanujacharva: Visistadvaita

  • Related to Srivishnava Sect and Sri Sampradaya Sect

  • Followers called Vedanta Desika

  • He wrote Satadusani against Advaita

  • Lived in Kanchipuram and his guru was Yadava Prakash

  • In 1096, he went in the darbar of Vishnuvardhana and converted him into Vaishnava

  • Also wrote commentary on Badrayana's Brahmasutra

Madhavacharya: Dvaita School (Dualism)

  • Born in Beli,

  • He founded 8 Monasteries;

  • He wrote a book called Bharatatparinirnaya

  • He was founder of Brahmana sampradaya

Srikantacharva: Sivadvaita

  • Wrote commentary Brahm sutra, emphsised Saiva Agmas and Upanishad

  • Propounded that Siva endowed with Sakti is an ultimate Brahmana

  • Jivas are infinite in number

Nimbakacharya: Dvaitadvaita

  • He founded Sankadi Sampradaya

  • Wrote a book called Vedantaparijatasurabha, which is a commentary on Brahma sutra

  • Raghavaballavaha was a branch of it

  • Wrote Hita Harivamsa

  • He also wrote a book called Siddhantaratna, which is also known as Dasaloki.

Vallabhacharya: Suddhadvaita

  • He was son of Laksmana Bhatt, and belonged to Kanakarva, and lived for sometime in Vrindavana and worshipper have Krishna and therefore, he is known as Srinatha.

  • He was a Saguna;

  • Wrote Sachitanand

  • Established Srinath Temple

  • Established Vaisnava School? His philosophy is known as Pustimarga His disciple and son Vittalnath found the Rudrasampradaya.

Chaitnaya: Achchintya

Vedovedavada

  • His original name was Visambhar Misra; nick name Nimai

  • Birth place: Navadvipa (1485-1538); Died in Puri

  • His Sampradaya was called Gauriya Sampradaya.

  • His Guru was Kesava Bharati.

  • Lived during the reign of Gajapati Raja Prataprudra of Orissa.

  • Jiva Goswami has written a book about him called Satya Sandharva.

Maharashtra: Jnaneshvara: (? -1296)

  • He has written a commentary called Bhavarthadipika, which is also called Jnanesvari

  • His best compilation is Amrita anubhava

  • During his time Vithoba became important, which is situated near Pandharpur.

Guru Namadeva: (1270-1350)

  • He was influenced by Islam;

  • By caste, he was Tailor; he was follower of Rama

  • Visoba Keeker was his guru.

Ekanath: (1533-1599)

  • Brahman; his Guru was Janardhan Swami (1504-1575).

  • Ramayana: produced first reliable edition of the Nameswari, and also written commentary on Jnaneswari

  • Bhavartha Ramayana

  • 11th Chapter of Bhagvata is known as Eknathi Bhagawata. He has written:

    1. Bhavaratha Ramayana

    2. Rukmini Svayamvara

    3. Composed hundreds of Abhangas, Gaulans, Bharudas

    4. Commentaries on Chatuhsloki Bhagavata, Svatmasukha and Chiranji-vapada and official edition of Jnaneswari.

  • He is famous for his Abhangas.

  • According to the tradition, a group of five writers formed the Eknatha Panchaka: Eknatha, Rama Janardhana, Jani Janardhana, Vitha Renukanandana and Dasopantha.

Tukarama: (1598-1650)

  • Greatest Bhakti poet

  • Varkari Sect

  • Wrote Abhangas and was very famous for that.

  • Contemporary of Shivaji

  • Born in Kunnavi

Smarat Ramadasa (1608-1682)

  • A born Saint; performed severe penance for 12 years and travelled for another 12 years.

  • Started the cult of Dhanurdari Rama and of Balabhima; established mathas.

  • He has written:

  1. Anandavana Bhuvana: about ideal state;

  2. Janasvabhava Gosavi:

  3. Asmani Sultani;

  4. Parachakra-Nirupana;

  5. Dasabodha;

  6. Karunashatke;

  7. Manache Sloka;

  8. Ramavaradayani

Ramananda: (1300 -1411)

  • He was born at Prayaga, Allahabad and have studied the Visishtadvaita system of Ramanuja at Varanasi at the feet of a teacher Ragha-vananda

  • He had 12 disciples: called Avadutha, i.e, free from all barriers, named

    1. Asananda

    2. Surasurananda

    3. Sukhnanda

    4. Paramananda

    5. Mahananda

    6. Pipa (a rajput ruling chief)

    7. Kabir (weaver)

    8. Bhavananda

    9. Sena (Barber)

    10. Dhanna (Jat)

    11. Sri Ananda

    12. Ravidasa (cobbler)

  • Use of vernacular language instead of Sanskrit;

  • Introduced cult of Rama and Sita in the place of Krishna and Radha

Kabir - (1440 -1518)

  • Initially disciple of Ramanada later developed his own sect.

  • A Nirguna, lived during the reign of Sikander Lodhi; lived in Varanasi

  • Primarily a Reformer and iconoclast.

  • Kabirpanthis and other sects based on his teachings -shunned idolatry, open to Hindus and Muslims; stressed the value of Guruand restricted themselves to the vernacular.

  • Important works:

    1. Bijaka: seed book, most sacred; Bijaka was dictated by Kabir and complied by his disciple hagawanadasa; his dohas are incorporated in Adi-Grantha.

    2. Mangala;

    3. Sabada;

    4. Rekhtal;

    5. Basant;

    6. Holi;

    7. Sakhi

  • He was against Sakta

  • Tomb at Mahar (Gorakhpur), Uttar Pradesh

Goswami Tulsidas:-(1532-1623)

  • Born in Gonda District in Eastern U.P

  • Traditionally 6 minor and 6 major works ascribed to him. Of the major works-Ramacharitamanas (written in 1574, written in Awadhi language); Vinaya Pattrika, Kavitavali are prominent.

  • Others are: Ramayana Bairaga, Janaki Mangal, Geetawali and Dohawali.

Surdas- (1483-1563)

  • One of the 8 main disciples of Vallabha.

  • Born in a Brahman family and musician attached to temples at Agra and Mathura.

  • Surawali

  • Sahitya Hahiri

Mira Bai: (1503-1573)

  • Padavali

  • Daughter of Ratan Singh Rathore.

  • Married in Chittor

  • Bairam Deva- uncle

  • Written in Brajabhasa, Gujarati, Rajasthani

Dadu Dayal: (1544-1603)

  • Ahmedabad, settled at Naraina

  • Buddhanand (Hindu Tradition)

  • Buddhan (Muslim tradition)

  • The poems are known as

Bani Daranidasa : 1656

  • Disciple of Kabir Dasa

  • Formed Darnidasi branch of Kabir Panth in Chattisgarh region, M.P.

  • Satya Prakash

  • Prem Prakash

Tagjivandasa

  • BaraBanki (UP)

  • founder of Satnami Sect

  • His disciple Dulavi

Carandasa

  • Mewat Rajasthan

  • A Virguna Upasaka

  • Devotee of Sri Krishna of Vrindavana

  • Fine blend of Nirguna and Saguna