18th Century Independent States

Dual Administration (1765-1772):

  • Clive left India in February, 1766.

  • The administration was divided into: Nizamat and Diwani.

  • The separation of diwani and nizamat led to the emergence of a defunct government

  • Diwani was headed by a deputy for each part of the

  • The office of Naib Diwan, previously carried no fixed salary. But now, the authorities at Calcutta were urged by Md. Reza Khan to fix a regular salary.

  • Thus, on 31st December, 1766, the select committee decided to divide an amount of Rs. 12 lakh among Md. Reza Khan, Rai Durlabh and Sitab Ray.

Revenue System:

  • The source of diwani revenue may be classified under 4 heads: land revenue, duties and customs, farms of trade privileges and fines and forfeiture.

  • Of these, the revenue de-rived from land form the main item of state receipt.

  • The government made yearly contracts for the land revenue with various classes of tax-collectors.

  • The annual bandobast was fixed or renewed every year on the festival day named Punya ordinarily occurring in the month of May for Bengal and in the month of September in Bihar.

  • Besides the farming system, under which the company tried to squeeze maximum from the peasants, the welfare and prosperity of the peasant was not possible.

  • Changes introduced by Verelst:

  • Reductions were allowed and the overrates were struck off in some cases where the dues were too high.

  • The heavy charges of collections were reduced by the dismissal of the troops maintained by fauzdars and other officials.

  • The Zamindars were strictly ordered to promote cultivation and provide protection to Ryots.

  • Frequent dismissal of collectors was prohibited.

Administration of justice:

  • The judicial powers of suba were shared between the Nazim and the Diwan.

  • Nazim was responsible theoritically, for the maintenance of peace and administration of criminal justice.

  • The Diwan on the other hand, was the head of provincial exchequer and was responsible for civil jurisdiction.

  • However the line of demarcation between the Diwani and Nizamat was not clearly demarcated.

  • The company enjoined upon its servants not to interfere in the administration of justice.

  • Officials:

    • Nazim-supreme magistrate.

    • Diwan-settle cases relating to real estate and landed property.

    • Darogah-i-Adalat Alia or the Naib Nazim-judge of all matters of property excluding claims of land and property inheritance.

    • Darogah-Adalat-Diwani-cases related to landed property

    • Faujdar-chief police officer and judge of all crimes.

    • Qazi-cases regarding claims of inheritance or succession, performance of ceremonies like marriage and funeral

    • Muhatasib-regulation of sale of liquor.

    • Mufti-expounded law and wrote the fatwa applicable to a particular case.

    • Qanungo-registrar of lands, refree in cases relating to land.

    • Kotwal-peace officer of the night, subordinate to the faujdar.

Law courts in the ceded districts:

  • Sadar Cutcherry-dealt with the cases related to landed property

  • Bakshi dastur-dealt with the matters concerning police.

  • Faujdari adalat-dealt with criminal matters.

  • Bazi Zamin Dastur-dealt with cases relating to charity and rent free lands.

  • Bazi jama dastur-settlements of social offences and matters relating to lands and public works.

  • Kharaj Dastur-settlement of landholders' accounts.

Courts in Calcutta:

  • There were two sets of courts:

    • One instituted by the royal charter, deriving jurisdiction from English Crown over its British subjects, their native employees and other persons who accept their jurisdiction.

    • Other established by the Company in its capacity as zamindar and deriving its jurisdiction from the country government and having jurisdiction over locals only.

Army:

  • The company's army in Bengal consisted of 19 battalions of sepoys, 4 companies of artillery, 24 companies of European infantry, and about 1,200 irregular cavalry.

  • Clive reorganized in the following manner:

  • Infantry was increased and divided into three single battalion regiments of nine companies each.

  • Irregular cavalry was disbanded.

  • Army grouped in three Brigades consisting of cavalry, a company of artillery, a regiment of European infantry, and seven battalions of sepoy.

  • The Dual Government proved very ruinous for the province of Bengal.

  • In 1770, famine took place in Bengal and one third of population perished. It was more of an artificial famine.

  • In 1776, Mubarak-ud-daulah ascended the throne. -The pension was reduced to 32 lakhs and was further to 16 lakhs.

  • Warren Hastings appointed Munni Begum (wife of Mir Jafar) as incharge of household. She was to be assisted by Raja Gurudas.

  • Office of Naib Diwan of Bengal and Bihar was abolished.

  • Revenue was placed under the direct supervision of Governor and a committee was formed to audit accounts of Diwani assisted by an Indian official called RaiRayan.

  • The first office holder was Raja Raj Ballabh.

  • Pension of Nawab of Avadh and that of Shah Alam.

  • In this way Hastings ended Dual Administration

  • The Nizamat merged into the Diwani.

  • Each district had two courts

Court Supervisor

  • Civil Administration Mofussil Diwani Adalat Collector helped the Diwan.

  • Criminal Administration Faujdari Adalat. Qazi or Mufti presided.

  • In Calcutta there was to be:

  1. Sadar Diwani Adalat to be supervised by the Governor and 2 Councillors assisted by Rai Rayan and would be the court of appeal after Mofusil and

  2. Sadar Nizamat headed by a Chief Qazi or Mufti.

Carnatlc:

  • Daud is regarded as first Nawab of Karnataka and ruled from 1700-1708.

  • On 1715 he was killed while fighting with Sayyid Hussain Ah Khan in the reign of Farrukh Siyar.

  • Md.Sayyid was the Nawab between 1710-1732.

  • In 1713: Adivision was effected in the jurisdiction of Karnataka:

    1. Hyderabad! or Golconda Karnataka-including portions of Panyaghat upto Balaghat (country to the west of ghats),

    2. Balaghat: Five sarkars belonged to Hyderabad (Sidhout, Gandikotta, Gutti, Gurum-konda and Cumbum).

  • Md. Sayyid (also called Sa'adutullah Khan) retained jurisdiction over the two divisions for four divisions.

  • Amin Khan in 1713 was in charge of Bijapuri Balaghat and was called Nawab of Sera.

  • Sa'adatullah was styled as Nawab or Nazim of Arcot.

  • After his death his nephew Baqir Ah (Qiladar of Vellore) ascended the throne. He gave his Masnad to Dost Ali.

  • Dost Ali was famous for his justice.

  • He had one son - Safdar Ah.

  • He had five sons-in-law. Murtaza Ali was the eldest.

  • The most prominent however, was Chand Sahib alias Hussain Dost Khan.

  • In 1734, Safdar Ali and Chanda Sahib started his southward expansion.

  • Chanda Sahib seized Trichinopolly which was under Rani Meenakshi (wife of Vijayrang Choknath the last nayak of Madura).

  • In 1736, second expedition occurred and Chanda Sahib captured Madura and Dindigul.

  • He also defeated Bangaru Tirumala in the bloody battle of Ammayapalayam.

  • In 1742, Sa'adatullah Khan died. This created chaos.

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk advanced to Karnataka and put the elder son of Safdar Ali as the incharge of Arcot.

  • Abdullah Khan who had been put in charge of Karnataka by the Nizam died of colic in 1744. He was succeeded by Anwaruddin.

First Carnatlc war: (1746-48)

  • It was the result of British French rivalry.

  • The French Governor Dumas had given shelter to Chanda Sahib and Safdar Ah.

  • In the mean time Dumas was succeeded by Dupleix, who was very ambitious and dreamt of French supremacy in India.

  • In March 1744, in Europe there started a war of succession on the issue of Austria.

  • The political situation of Carnatic provided opportunity to him to assume a more active role.

  • He thus tried to utilize the Governor of Mauritius La Bourdonnais. La Bour-donnais in return wanted to secure the help of the French Ministry to attack the British squadron in the Indian Ocean.

  • The attempt however failed because Pondicherry had no harbour and lacked the facility to man privateers which Bourdonnais had asked for.

  • Thus Dupleix appealed to Nawab Anwaruddin to prohibit English from attacking the French.

  • The Nawab issued passes to French allowing them to trade freely.

  • The provision was not respected by the British.

  • Subsequently, the English squadron blockaded Pondicherry and Dupleix threatened to launch an attack on Fort St. David.

  • Labourdonnais reached Coromondol coast. He met the English fleet commanded by Peyton.

  • In the meantime Bourdonnais attacked Madras and the English garrison surrendered to French.

  • The fall of Madras alarmed the Nawab of Arcot.

  • He sent an army to wrest Madras from French and the Battle of Adyar took place.

  • The Nawab's army was commanded by Mahfuz Khan.

  • The French army was commanded by Paradise. The Nawab's army was defeated.

  • Dupleix attacked Fort St. David but to the effort of Griffin it was saved.

  • In July Admiral Boscowen reached reducing Pondicherry, Maurutius and Chandannagar on the way. He was a Br. Admiral.

  • The war came to be known as War of St. Thomas

  • In the meantime the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed between the British and the French in Europe.

  • The war stopped. Madras returned to Britain.

Second Carnatic War:

  • A political vacuum was created. Mughals had control over the areas of Hyderabad as well as the Carnatic.

  • Due to the decline of Mughals, Nizam-ul-Mulk declared himself independent and after him the Nawab of Carnatic also declared himself independent.

  • The trade rivalry between the English and the French and the Seven Years War in Europe were only the superficial causes for the Second Carnatic war.

  • The main cause however was the existing political condition and the ambition of Dupleix.

Map of India in 1836

India in 1836

Map of India in 1836

The War:

  • Dupleix was quite disappointed by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

  • Both the British and the French were involved in the local politics.

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk died in 1748.

  • There soon started a rivalry between the Nasir Jung (his son) and Asaf Jah/ Muzaffar Jung (his grandson) on the issue of succession.

  • In the meantime Chanda-sahib and Anwaruddin (Nawab of Arcot) hatched a conspiracy.

  • Chandasahib made an alliance with Muzaffar Jung. His cause was supported by Dupleix.

  • In July 1749, they marched to Arcot (Chandasahib and his allies).

  • Near Ambur due to the treachery of Tahir Hussain Khan Anwaruddin the Nawab of Arcot was killed.

  • Muzaffar Jung nominated Chandashib to the throne. This was basically the victory of Dupleix.

  • This alarmed the British and they started supporting the cause of Anwaruddin's son Mohammad AM.

  • Captain Cape assisted Md. Ali.

  • Chandasahib in the meantime wanted to extend his influence over Tanjore and Mysore and he sought the help of French.

  • Dupleix thus despatched letters to Maratha chiefs requesting them to maintain Chandasahib in the principality of Tanjore in his new position.

  • Dupleix in July 1749, captured Masulipatnam.

  • The climax of Dupleix's power reached when Nasir Jung was shot dead and Muzzafar Jung was installed on the throne of Hyderabad.

  • Dupleix received the title of Zafar Jung. He was also appointed the Deputy and the French were granted Masulipatnam and Divi Is-' lands.

  • Thus, Dupleix by this time atttained the summit of his ambition and Deccan in a way was a sphere of influence.

  • Clive soon became active and captured Arcot in 1751.

  • In June 1752 Chandasahib was killed in Manoji Appa's camp and the French seige of Trichinopolly ended.

  • In this war S. Lawrence was the English C-in-C.

  • With the defeat Dupleix's fortune shattered. He was recalled.

  • Godeheu was appointed in 1754 in his place. He signed a treaty with English in January, 1755.

Third Carnatic War: (1758-1763)

  • It was by product of European war.

  • The 7 years war had started in Europe and the immediate cause was the British capture of Chandernagore factory.

  • In retaliation in 1757, Count d'Lally captured fort St. David, but he failed to conquer Madras. Battle of Condanore (12th December, 1758):

  • Col. Lawrence and Col. Draper stopped Count d'Lally from capturing Madras.

  • In the battle of Wandiwash (22nd January, 1760) Col. Eyrecoot defeated Lally in 1760. Eyrecoot captured Pondichery and French lost all their possessions to the English.

  • With the Treaty of Paris in 1763, peace was secured and the lost territories were returned to the French.

  • In 1801, Nawab Azim-ud-Daullah, of Carnatic, signed a subsidiary alliance with the British.

  • On 17th Oct., 1855, Md. Ghaus, Nawab of Carnatic, died and Lord Dalhouisie decided to abandon the title of Nawab.