18th Century Independent States

Hyderabad

  • In 1724, Nizam-ul-Mulk founded an independent state in Hyderabad.

  • He was a Mughal Wazir and had come as a Governor of the place.

  • He is called the founder of Asafjahi Dynasty.

  • He was born in 1671.

  • During Aurangzeb's reign he held the Mansab of 2000/ 500.

  • In 1691, he got the title of Chin Qilich Khan.

  • After the death of Aurangzeb, he had joined Azzam. Azzam conferred upon him the title of Khan-i-Durran.

  • He was a Shrewd man and joined Bahadur Shah when his position grew stronger.

  • Chin Qilich Khan was appointed as the Subedar of Awadh by Bahadur Shah.

  • In 1710, Zulfiqar Khan became the most important noble in the Mughal court.

  • Chin Qilich Khan retired from politics for 5 yrs.

  • On the accession of Farrukh Siyar he was recalled to Delhi and was given the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahlul Fath Jung and Khan-i-Khannan.

  • In 1722, he was appointed as the Wazir of Mughal empire.

  • In 1723, he left for Deccan and reached Aurangabad, capital of Deccan, in June 1724.

  • Mubariz was the Governor of Hyderabad. A decisive battle was fought in 1724 in Sakhar Khardah (Berar) there was a battle in which Md. Khan was defeated . He declared himself independent and hyderabad was declared as an independent state.

  • Now the Nizam's aim was to establish superiority in the Deccan and the greatest hin-derance were the Marathas (Peshwa Baji Rao I)

  • He appointed Izud-ud-Daullah Iwaz Khan in the Deccan.

  • Between 1724 -1748, he remained an independent ruler of Deccan.

  • The Nizam was defeated inPalkhedinl728.

  • In 1731, the Nizam was defeated in the battle of Bilaspur, near Dhaboi.

  • During the invasion of Nadir Shah, the emperor called him to Delhi.

  • In the meantime tension started with Baji Rao I, who went to Delhi. The Nizam left his son Nasir Jung and reached Delhi in July, 1737.

  • Here the emperor titled him as Asaf Jah, which means 'in the dignity to Asaf who was minister of king Solomon'.

  • But the Marathas defeated him near Bhopal and compelled to conclude a convention on 7th January., 1738, at Durrah Sarai.

  • In 1741, he suppressed the rebellion of Nasir Jung.

  • He wrote a book in Persian called Shakis

  • He died at the age of 77, on 21st May, 1748.

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk conferred the title of Muzaffar Jung to Hidayat Muhi-ud-Din Khan.

  • Muzaffar Jung died and was succeeded by Salabat Jung (3rd son of Nizam-ul-Mulk).

  • In the meantime, Chanda Sahib was appointed as the Diwan in 1749 by Muzaffar Jung and gave him the title Khuda Nawaz Khan Bahadur.

  • Chanda Sahib advised Muzaffar Jung to capture Carnatic first.

  • The expedition was started with the help of the French.

  • In 1760, Nizam Ali provided some stability to the politics of Deccan.

  • In 1765 Madras Council (British) helped Nizam against Haider Ali.

  • In 1766, the English, Nizam and the Marathas formed a triple alliance against Haider Ali.

  • In 1779, Basalat Jung became the ruler. He was succeeded by Ali Jah in 1797.

  • In 1798, he made a subsidiary alliance with the British.

Rohlllas

  • They originally were Afghanis.

  • The Mughals defeated the Afghans in 16th century.

  • In 17th century the Afghans remained confined to Allahabad, Darbhanga, Orissa and Sylhet.

  • In the 18th century, after the declining of the Mughals, they started to assert themselves again.

  • Their capital was Rampur, near river Ramganga.

  • It was initially called Katehar.

Invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali

First Invasion: (March 1748)

  • The first invasion took place through Punjab.

  • In March 1748 the Mughal forces defeated him near Sirhind in the Battle of Manpur.

  • The credit goes to Mir Manu.

Second Invasion: (Dec. 1748)

  • Mir Manu tried to stop the second invasion.

  • Abdali had to return.

  • KauraMal, who was called Mitha Mai, assisted him in his task.

Third Invasion: (Oct.1751)

  • He reached Wazirabad in 1751.

  • In Jan. 1752 he reached Lahore.

  • On 6th March, 1752 Mir Manu was defeated.

  • Kaura Mai was killed by AdinaBeg.

  • The sikh leader, Sangat Singh of Khalsa, was killed.

  • Mir Manu was compelled to sue for peace. He was asked to pay Rs. 24 lakhs.

  • Mir Manu being stubborn refused to pay.

  • Ahmad Shah Abdali was very happy with him.

  • He conferred the title of Far Jand Khan Bahadur on Mir Manu. He adopted him as his son.

  • Mir Manu was reinstated as the Viceroy of Lahore and Multan.

  • Mir Manu gave Rs.30 Lakh to him.

Fourth Invasion: (Autumn of 1756)

  • The Rohila chief Najib Khan invited Ahmad Shah Abdali.

  • The Mughal Emperor at this time was Alamgir n.

  • Abdali reached upto Delhi and occupied the throne and Imad-ul-Mulk the Wazir surrendered.

  • Imad-ul-Mulk was retained as the Wazir. Najib was made the agent.

  • The son of Abdali, Taimur Shah was made Viceroy of Lahore, Sirhind, Thatta, Multan and Kashmir.

  • Sikhs were now in a position to consolidate.

  • Taimur Shah was very ruthless and proclaimed Jehad and the holy places of the sikhs were attacked.

  • Baba Deep Singh tried to defend the holy places.

Fifth invasion: (1759)

  • Abdali came back to India to recover his territories.

  • During the course of his Fifth invasion he defeated the Marathas in the Battle of Panipat.

  • The sikhs consolidated his position due to this battle.

Sixth Invasion: (1762)

  • He returned to India to teach sikhs a lesson.

  • On 3rd February. 1762, he reached to Lahore.

  • On 5th February. 1762, 10,000 sikhs were killed in the Bara Ghalluhar(the 2nd Holocaust).

  • The Holy Granth written by Guru Gobind Singh was lost at Damdam Sahib.

Seventh Invasion: (1764)

  • It was launched against Sikhs.

  • He was assisted by Nasir Khan Baluchi.

  • On 1st December, 1764, sikhs were massacred.

  • They fled to Chakguru (Amritsar).

Eigth Invasion: (Novemberl766)

  • During the invasion he defeated them in war of Bieghi or Tarqi (10 miles from Rohtas on the bank of Jhelum).

  • The important sikh leaders were: Sobha Singh, Lehna Singh and Hira Singh.

  • On 17th January 1767, Abdali's General, Jahan Khan was defeated by Sikhs near Amritsar.

  • Najib-ud-Daulah joined Abdali.He was also assisted by Amar Singh Patiala.

  • Amar Singh of Sirhind who assisted Abdali was conferred the title of Raja-i-Raja Gan.

  • Abdali returned on June 1767.

  • He died in 1772.

  • Politically, annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals