Afghan Dynasty

Afghan Dynasty

Detaied Map of Afghan Dynasty

Afghan Dynasty

Detaied Map of Afghan Dynasty

  • The founder was Sher Shah Suri;

  • Original name was Farid;

  • He was the grandson of Ibrahim Sur, a tribe of Afghani;

  • Most probably lived in Roh, hence is called the Roh Tribe;

  • According to Abul Fazl, Ibrahim soor was a horse dealer and came to India during Bahlul Lodhi;

  • Ibrahim became the commander of 40 horses and was given an assignment of a village in Beran Pargana of Narnaul under Jamal Khan Sharang Khani of Hisar Firoza;

  • His son's name was 'Hassan' and Farid was born to his first wife;

  • Generally conceived that he was born in 1486;

  • Hassan's ability attracted attention of Jamal Khan who after his transfer to Jaunpur as Governor conferred the Parganas of Sasaram and Khavasspur (in modern Shahbad district in Bihar) upon him the Jagir for maintaining 500 Troopers;

  • Hassan had 4 wives and 8 sons-Farid, Nizam, Suleman, Ahmad;

  • Farid studied both Arabic and Persian languages. His well-known Persian works -Gulistan, Sikandernama and Gustan; he also learnt Hindi and Arithmetic;

  • From 1518-1522, Farid acted as the deputy to his father, in the Parganas of Sasaram and Kavaspur for his father and became successful;

  • Due to greater pressure from Suleman's mother, he resigned and proceeded to Agra - Capital of Lodhi Sultanate;

  • He got the patron of Daulat Khan - an influential Amin;

  • After the death of his father, he arrived at Sasaram with the Farman;

  • Suleman - his stepbrother and his mother fled to Md. Khan Jagirdar of Chaund and sought his assistance;

  • To counter act this Farid entered the service of Bihar Khan Lohani - after the battle of Panipat (1526) declare his independence is S. Bihar and took the title of Sultan Md.;

  • He was appointed as the Vakil of S. Bihar and tutor of Jalal Khan, minor son of Sultan Md.;

  • In 1528, Sultan Md. died, minor son Jalal was installed but Md. Lodhi seized the capital;

  • Md. Lodhi was captured by Babur and Jalal was re-instigated under the guidance of his mother Dudu;

  • It was difficult to manage the administration for, so Sher Shah was appointed the deputy (NAYAB) of S. Bihar, in 1529;

  • Dudu died in 1530;

  • In 1530, he captured the fortress of Chunar and married the childless widow of Taj Khan - commandant of the fort Lad Malika;

  • In 1530, he married Gohar Gosain - Childless widow of Nasir Khan Lohani of Gazipur and got enormous wealth of 300 tonnes of Gold;

  • On the personal request of Sultan Md. Lodhi, Sher Shah joined him against the Mughals;

  • A battle between Sultan Md. and Humayun Itarted at Dadrah on the Gomti bank in 1531 September.

  • Sher Shah ditched the Sultan;

  • In the meantime Bahadur Shah (Gujarat) revolted and Humayun had to go there, this provided an opportunity to Sher Shah to consolidate his position;

  • In 1535, Sher Shah defeated Md. Shah;

  • He then moved towards Gaur - Capital of Bengal and at Teliahgrahi, he defeated the Bengal and Portuguese allies, but the impregnable fortification of Gaur stopped him to move further;

  • Bahadur Shah was defeated by Humayun and he got time to look to east;

  • Instead of moving directly to Gaur, he tried to capture Chunar - his blunder -which was deferred by Rumi Khan by heavy bombarding;

  • After 3 month of heroic defense the fort of Chunar fell in March 1538, in reaction to which Sher Shah captured Rohtaspur;

  • Sher Shah defeated the Mughal army at Kolgaon;

  • In 1538, Sher Shah celebrated his coronation at Gaur and assumed title Farid-ud-Din-Duniya-Wadin-Abul-Muzaffar-Sher Shah Sultan;

  • Humayun wasted 9 months time in Bengal where in the Battle of Ghaggar or Chunar in 1539, Sher Shah defeated Humayun;

  • After victory at Chausa he assumed the title Sultan-i-Adil;

  • In 1540, in Battle of Kannauj or Ganga, Sher Shah again defeated Humayun;

  • After the war, Humayun fled. Sher Shah dispatched Barmazid Gaur in Pursuit of Humayun;

  • Sher Shah went to Delhi and Lahore to trace Humayun;

  • Humayun failed to mobilise the power of his brothers

    1. Hindal (Multan);

    2. Ramran (Kabul);

  • Sher Shah launched a compaign against Ghakkar (tribes between Jhelum and Indus);

  • In 1541, he defeated Khizar Khan, the governor of Bengal;

  • Sher Shah's Governor Habitat Khan Niyaji (Punjab) defeated Fat Khan Jat;

  • Niyaji-conferred title Azam Humayun;

  • In 1542, Sher Shah invaded Malwa, Agra and Ranthambore and then fort of Kuran Mai in Bhopal;

  • In 1543, he captured Chanderi, 1544-mewar;

  • In 1543-1544, he defeated Ajmer and Jodhpur, in the battle of Sammel, under Maldev;

  • Kawas Khan was appointed the Governor of Jodhpur;

  • By the end of 1544 the Afghan army occupied the territory of Marwarfrom Ajmer to Mt. Abu;

  • In 1544, he also captured chittor fort and Maharana Udai Singh delivered the keys;

  • Farista - In Nov. 1544, he led expedition against Kalinjar in Bundelkhand; Kirat Singh was the king of Kalinjar;

  • Ahmad Yadgar in his book Tarikh-i-Salatin-i-Afghania, Kirat Singh refused to give up Bir Singh Bundela - a fugitive, to Sher Shah;

  • Sher Shah tried to capture the fort;

  • In 22nd May 1545 he died after the victory of Kalinjar.

  • His body was carried to Sasaram;

Extent of His Empire

  • Almost the whole of N.India - Indus in the west, Vindhyas in the south, Assam in the east and Ghakkar in North-West and Himalaya in the north.


  • He started silver coins called 'Rupaiyah';

  • His gold coins were of 168.5 grains and silver of 180 grains;

  • A number of new copper coins introduced, called 'Dam';

  • The rate of exchange between copper Dam and silver rupee was 64:1;

  • He built several roads -longest road was 1500 kos from Sonar Gaon in Dhaka via Agra and Delhi to Indus (GT. Road), Agra.- Jodhpur, Agra to Burhanpur, Lahor -Multan;

  • Sarais and Dak Chowkis were also built along the roads headed by Daroga-i-Dak Chowkis;

  • Sher Shah's military strength was 1 lac, 50 thousand cavalry, 25000 infantry, 5000 war elephants;

  • Built Musoleums of Sasaram, Purana Qila of Delhi, Rohtasfort in Jhelum;

  • He was an Orthodox Sunni

  • Nevertheless, it can be said that Sher Shah was the first person, which attempted to establish an Indian empire, based on the will of the people.

  • He had three sons

  1. Adil Khan;

  2. Jalal Khan;

  3. Qutub Khan;

Islam Shah

  • Jalal Khan assumed office in 1545 and assumed the title of Islam Shah (1545-1554);

  • He executed the ruler of Kalinga;

  • In 1547, he defeated Niyaji;

  • He codified the law;

  • During his reign the influence of Maulana Abdul Niyaji of Mahdavi Silsila was felt;

  • In 1552, Kamran -Humanyu's brother, came to Islam Shah for help;

  • Islam Shah was particular in Maintaining the prestige and dignity of King's position;

  • Introduced graded system in the army;

  • Built Mankot in Sivalik Hills;

  • He was an orthodox Sunni;

Firoze Shah: (1554)

  • He was the minor son of Islam Shah but Mubariz Khan, son of Sher Shah's younger brother NIZAM and brother of minor king's mother Bibi Bai murdered him and assumed the title Md. Adil Shah;

Md. Adil Shah: (1554-1556)

  • He appointed Hemu as his Wazir;

  • Streamlined the departments of intelligence and posts - Daroga-i-Dakcho-wki;

  • In the battle of Panipat on 5th November 1556, Hemu was defeated by Humayun and Mughal rule was re-established.