Dynasty in India Sayyid Dynasty & Lodhi Dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty (1414 -1451)

Khizr Khan

  • It has been said that he was appointed as viceroy of Delhi by Timur Lang.

  • According to Yahya Sarhindi, the author of Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi,

  • Khizr Khan was a descent from prophet of Islam.

  • He assumed the title 'Raiyat-i-Ala'.

Mubarak Shah

  • He adopted the title 'Shah'.

  • He read the khutba by his name.

  • He received help from Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir.

  • He defeated Khokhar tribe.

  • He patronised Yahya Sirhindi.

Muhammad Shah

  • In his reign Bahlol Lodhi was given the title of Khan-i-Khanan.

Allaudin Alain Shah

  • During his reign, his Prime Minister Hamid Khan invited Bahlol Lodhi to capture the throne.

Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1562)

Map showing extent of Lodhi Dynaty

Map of Lodhi Dynasty

Map showing extent of Lodhi Dynaty

Bahlol Lodhi

  • The Lodhis established the first Afghan dynasty in India.

  • He called himself as 'Masad-i-Ali'.

  • He annexed the Sharqi Empire.

  • He introduced copper coin called 'Bahloli'.

  • He died near Jalali.

Sikander Lodhi

  • His mother was a Hindu.

  • He introduced a 'Gaz-i-Sikandari' (measurement unit)

  • He shifted his capital to Agra in 1504 A.D.

  • He wrote poems under the name of 'Gulrukh'.

Ibrahim Lodhi

  • He fought a battle with Rana'Sanga at Khatauli. Rana defeated the Lodhi

  • During his reign Babur was invited by the Governor of Eiiniab, Daulat Khan Lodhi and Governor of Bihar, Daria Khan Lohani.

  • Babur defeated Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat (1526).

Agriculture and Finance during Sultanate

  • Crown land: Khahsa

  • Grants made for the religious purposes: Waqf

  • Grant made to non-religious institutions: Milk

  • Grant given as a reward: Inam

  • Land tax from Hindu landlords: Kharaj

  • Land granted to military officers: Iqta

  • Holders of Iqta: Muqta

  • House tax: Ghari

  • Grazing tax: Charai

  • Alms tax on Muslims: Zakat

  • War booty: Khums

  • Village headman: Khuts/ Muqaddams.

  • Land revenue fixed on the basis of standing crops: Khet Batai

  • Land revenue fixed without separating the grain from the chaff: Lank Batai

  • After separatingfhe grain from the chaff: Ras Batai

  • Land revenue on the basis of measurement of land: Masahat

  • Land revenue on the basis of estimate: Nasq

  • Taxes on grains: Galla-i-Chungi

  • Tax on vegetables: Khizrawat


  • Majlis-i-Khalwat: council of friends and trusted officers who advised the sultan

  • Wazir: head of Diwan-i-Wizarat (dealt with income and expenditure)

  • Mustaufi—Mummalik: Auditor General

  • Mushrif-i-Mummalik: Accountant

  • Ariz-i-Mummalik: Head of the military department, Diwan-i-Arz

  • Sadr-us-Sudur: Head of the public charities and ecclesiastical department, Diwan-i-Risalat.

  • Qazi-ul-Quzzat: Head of the judicial department.

  • AmirMunshi: Head of department for correspondence, Diwan-i-Insha

  • Barid-i-Mummalik: Head of the information and intelligence department.

  • Vakil-i-Dar: Looked after the royal household.

  • Barbek: Looked after the royal court and was involved in assigning nobles a place in the court according to their positions and ranks.

  • Amir-i-Hajib: He presented all the visitors before the sovereign according to court etiquette.

  • Sar-i-Jandar: Chief of royal bodyguards

  • Amir-i-Bahr: Looked after boats

  • Waqia-Navis: News reporter.

  • Barid: Spy

  • Zawabit: State laws

  • Fawazil: Surplus

  • Amir-i-Khuzak: To protect the royal symbols.

Revenue Administration:

  • There were four major taxation:

  1. Zakat- was a religions taximposed on the Muslims and ' was 2.5 per cent;

  2. Khums - was a state share of the booty acquired by the soldier and the soldiers were required to surrender 1/5 th. During A.K.'s period it was reversed and increased to 4/5 th i.e. 80 per cent;

  3. Kharaj - was the land tax varied from 1/10* to 1/2. It was l/10th during Ghyasuddin Tughlak and 1/ 2 during A.K.;

  4. Jaziya - was a religious tax on the hindus because they were called_Zimmis i.e. protected people so the Jaziya was protection tax. It was 5 per cent and FST imposed it on Brahmins also. The other taxes were:

  5. Abawbs - Gharai, Charai - imposed by A.K.

  6. Haqis Shirub - water tax;

  7. (vii) Usari - on muslims; 1/ 10* on rain cultivated area and 1/20'" on artificial irrigational area;

  8. Kfudmati – tribute for subjugated Indian chiefs;