Indus Valley Civilization (2550 − 1800 BC)

The Indus Valley Civilization (2550-1800 B.C.) represents the Bronze Age culture. There were certain remarkable features present in the civilization which made it technologically far superior as compared to the cultures which flourished after the decline of this civilization. These remarkable features were:

  • Highly developed trade

  • Presence of some urban sites

  • Highly efficient town planning

  • Presence of buildings made of bricks

  • Use of Bronze

  • The ability to read and write and existence of script

  • Cosmopolitan population which consist of people of various race like Mediterranean, Proto Australoid, Mangoloids and Alpines

  • Presence of some civil or political authority

  • Standardization of script and weights

When we say that Indus Valley Civilization was technologically far superior as compared to its successor cultures and civilizations, the following are the reasons:

  • Rig Vedic (1500 B.C) people and those belonging to Chalcolithic cultures which flourished after to the Indus Valley Civilization did not contain any feature of urbanization.

  • Rig Vedic people use to lead a nomadic life while Indus Valley Civilization witnessed highly developed town planning and settled life.

  • The long distance trade, ability to read and write, cosmopolitan population were all missing in the civilizations and cultures which flourished after Indus Valley Civilization.

Geographical Extent

The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over the whole of Sind, Baluchistan, almost the whole of Punjab, northern Rajasthan, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. Shatughai & Mundigaq were the Indus sites found in Afghanistan. The civilization covered the area over 1,299,600 sq km. The following are the extreme ends of the civilization:

  • North- Shatughai

  • South- Malavana (Surat district of Gujarat)

  • East- Alamgirpur (Meerut district of U.P)

  • West- Suktagendor (on Markan coast)