Indus Valley Civilization-Internal Trade and Sources

OTHER SITES

  • These include Bara in Ropar, Sanghol in Ludhiana, Dabar-kot in Baluchistan, Kuntasi in Gujarat, Mithathal, Jhalipur and Sarai khola.

Other Sites
List of Oter Sites with Location

SITES

LOCATION

Harappa

Mahenjodaro

Lothal

Kalibangan

Chanhudaro

Suktagendor

Banawali

Kot Diji

Ropar

Alamgirpur

Balakot

Allahdino

Desalpur

Rojdi

Manda

Daimabad

Ravi

Indus

Bhogwa

Ghaggar

Indus

Arabian Sea

Saraswati

Indus

Sutlej

Hindan

Coastal

Indus (coast)

Bhadar

Bhadar

Chenab

Pravara

INTERNAL TRADE Limestone:

  • Rohri and Sukkur (Sindh, Pakistan)

  • Silver: Afghanistan or Iran.

  • Copper: Khetri in Rajasthan.

  • Lead: East or South India.

  • Lapis Lazuli: Badakshan in North-East Afghanistan.

  • Turquoise: Central Asia or Iran

  • Alabaster: Shahar-i-Sokta.

  • Jade: Central Asia

  • Agate, Chalcedony, Carnelian: Saurashtra.

  • Gold: Mysore.

SOURCES

  • Excavations conducted by Sir John Marshall and Sir Mortimer Wheeler.

  • By now over thousand settlements bearing Harappan material has been discovered.

  • By the middle of the 4th millennium B. C, the Indus alluvial plains became the focal point of change and many small and large settlements came into existence on the banks of the rivers Indus and Ghaggar.

  • The region formed the core region of the Harappan civilization and included sites such as Amri, Kot Diji, Mehrgarh, Rahman Dheri, Tarkari Qila, Bahawalpur and Kalibangan and some other sites in Punjab. The civilization emerged as a result of the processes of tech-nological and ideological unification.

  • The increasingly efficient technology and the exploitation of the fertile plains of the Indus must have given richer returns of grain production. At the time of the emergence of the Harappan civilization many sites like Kot Diji and Kalibangan were destroyed by fire due to accidental conflagrations.

  • This might have resulted from clashes between various agricultural groups and pastoral nomadic communities for control over land and animal resources.