Indus Valley Civilization-Rangpur, Surkotada and Kot Diji

Rangpur

  • It is 80 kms from Lothal in Gujrat.

  • M. S. Vats found it in 1931.

  • S. R Rao excavated the site in 1957-58.

  • It is a Post-Harappan site.

  • Rice husk has been found.

  • Six types of pottery have been excavated so far.

Surkotada

  • In Kutchch in Gujarat.

  • Discovered by Jagpati Joshi in 1964.

  • A Pre-Harappan and Post-Harappan site.

  • Burial room found.

  • Remains of horse found.

  • Human bones found in pottery.

  • It’s Citadel and the lower town were joined together.

Kot Diji

  • In Khairpur in Sind.

  • Discovered by Ghurye in 1935.

  • Pre-Harappan and Harappan site.

  • Stone-arrow head, steatite seals, figurine of ox, and Pi-pal leaf have been found here.

  • Painted vase of pottery with inscribed sun and peacock have been found. 1955 and 1957.

  • The pre-Harappan settlement was destroyed by fire.

  • The Harappan culture at Kot Diji had typical features-a well-regulated town plan with lanes, houses with stone foundations and mud brick walls.

  • Storage jars built on the mud floors and large unbaked cooking brick lined ovens were also found.

  • A broken steatite seal, a few inscribed potsherds, beads of terracotta, semi-precious and etched carnelian beads, copper/bronze bangles, metal tools and weap ons (a blade axe, chisels and arrow heads) terracotta bull and five figurines of the mother goddess were also discovered.

  • The Indus pottery with original bright red surface and compact texture has the pi-pal leaf, intersecting circles, peacocks, sun symbol, incised patterns etc.