Mauryas (Dynasty) -Rock Edicts and Inscriptions

Minor Rock Edicts

  1. Kandhar Rock Inscription (Bilingual): The written in Greek and Aramaic;

  2. Barabar Cave inscription: Situated in a group of hills around the city of Rajagraha; mentions that king 'Piyadassi' gave these Banyan caves to Ajivikas; they are three in number;

  3. Queen's Edict: Found in Allahabad – Kosambi: It refers to the queen Karuvaki, the mother of Tivara; she was the second queen; mentions donations to Mathas; Tivara was the only son mentioned in Edicts.

  4. Bairat: Near Jaipur; identified with Virata, the capital of Matsya, a stupa has been discovered from here; Bhabra edict has also been found here;

  5. Bhabra Edict: It was brought to Calcutta a Cunning-ham; it shows Asoka's reverence to Buddhism; it is addressed to the Sangha.

  6. Lampaka: It is fragmented and is written in Aramaic script;

  7. Maski: An inscription has been discovered from here, which mentions Ashoka as Piyadassi or Devanam, in 1915; this is the only inscription, which mentions Asoka as Piyadassi.

  8. Sohgaura: Located in Gorakhpur district of U.P.; copper plate inscription found here; famine and various measure taken by government have been mentioned;

  9. Mahasthan: The pre-Asokan Mauryan inscription found; also a copper plate inscription found here; the mahamatta of Pundranagara in describes as being incharge.

Pillar Inscriptions

(Seven Pillar Edicts)

  • 1st Pillar Edict: social code has been mentioned;

  • 2nd Pillar Edict: Chakshudan (eye donation) has been mentioned; Chakshudan and Dhamma are equal to minimum sin; the definition of Dhamma has been mentioned; and the three main qualities have also been mentioned;

  • 3rd Pillar Edict: Here the soul and sin has been mentioned; it also mentions the bad qualities like envy, pride, anger and cruelty; the 14 major Edicts were started only after these iii Pillar Edicts.

  • 4th Pillar Edict: the jurisdiction of the Rajukas has been mentioned; Pulsanik has been mentioned as Public Relation officer (PRO) ; in this pillar edict, Asokan inscriptions that "I devote my attention to all communities" is engraved.

  • 5th Pillar Edict: It too mentions about the prohibition to kill animals and burning the forests; Asoka acquits prisoners on his coronation anniversary;

  • 6th Pillar Edict: It mentions about the welfare of the people; it mentions that "the Dharmamahamattas will be with me" ; he began to issue Major Rock Edicts in his 13th regnal year;

  • 7th Pillar Edict: It also gives reference of the Dharma Mahamattas; it mentions that wells were dug. In the 8th regnal year, only one Pillar was erected which was situated between Delhi and Topra.

  • It also mentions the ways to propagate Dhamma i.e. through legislation or persuasion.