Mughal Empire Akbar

Akbar (1556-1605)

  • According to Abul Fazl and Badauni - the news of Humayun's death was concealed by Bairam Khan in order to prepare for the unopposed succession of Akbar;

  • On 14th February 1556, Akbar ascended the throne, at the age 13 years;

  • Then Bairam Khan resumed his activity against Sikandar Soor;

  • Akbar then moved to Sirhind and Bairam Khan executed Tardi Begh Khan for his failure at Delhi;

  • From Sirhind Akbar and Bairam Khan advanced to Delhi and faced Hemu (Hemu Shah) - adopted title Vikramaditya;

Detailed Map of Akbar's Empier

Akbar's Empier

Detailed Map of Akbar's Empier

  • On 5th November 1556, 2nd Battle of Panipat took place and Hemu captured by Shah Quli Khan Mahram;

  • After the victory of Panipat, Akbar entered Delhi;

  • In the meantime Sikander Soor defeated Khizr Khwaja Khan, and Sikander retreated;

  • Finally on 25th July 1557, Sikander Soor surrendered;

  • For 4 years (1556 - 59) Bairam Khan had bravely piloted the ship of Mughals against all odds;

  • As early as May, 1557, Bairam Khan suspected that Akbar had begum to dislike him;

  • Akbar was gradually coming under the influence of Atga Khail (foster relations) and Maham Anaga;

  • Akbar hatched a conspiracy with Maham Anaga, to kill Bairam Khan;

  • On 19th March, 1560, Akbar left Agra on the pretext of hunting and the conspiracy was drawn;

  • Bairam Khan's family resided at Tabarhind (Modern Bhatinda);

  • In 1560, Bairam Khan was killed;

  • In 1561, Akbar undertook the conquest of Malwa;

  • The Mughal army led by Adham Khan defeated the musician king Baz Bahur on 29th March 1561;

  • Baz Bahadur fled and made an alliance with Mubarak Khan of Khandesh and Tufar Khan of Berar and they defeated the Mughal army;

  • In 1562, Akbar sent his 2nd army under Abdullah Khan - an Uzbek, who compelled Baz Bahadur to flee to Chittor;

  • Abdullah Khan took Mandu and Mughal rule was established in Malwa;

  • From 1560 - 62, Akbar remained under the influence of Maham Anaga - foster mother of Akbar, Adham Singh and Shahibuddin; Akbar's Personality : -

  • Akbar adopted Persian festival - NUROZ;

  • He also adopted Persian Solar calendar;

  • He conferred title to different people : -

  1. JAGAT GURU : - Jaina Saint, Hari Vijay Suri;

  2. JUG PRADHAN : - Jin Chandra Suri, Kawtar Sampradaya;

  • Tony Monserreta, a Jesuits, came to his court;

  • Nagada beating started during his reign;

  • Jharonkha Darshan was started by him;

  • Taslim-i-Chauth was also started by him;

  • Famine relief started for the first time during 1594-98 famine;

  • Tulsi Das, Birbal (Kavi Priya), Soor Das, Rahim, Raskhan, all flourished during his reign;

  • He built important forts -Attock, Fatehpur Sikri and Allahabad fort;

  • He made Fatehpur Sikri his capital after the victory of Gujarat;

  • He abolished Sati and permitted widow remarriage. Fixed marriage age: -14 years for girls and 16 for boys;

  • He also abolished slavery;

  • Started Taccavi (Sondhar);

  • Lots of Books were translated into Persian during his period: -

  1. Ibrahim Sirhindi - translated the Atharva Veda into Persian;

  2. Naqib Khan, Abdur Kadir Badauni and Sheikh Sultan - Mahabharat;

  3. Faizi-Lilawati, Nal Damyanti;

  4. Mullah Shah Md. -Rajtarangini;

  5. Maulana Shorre -Harivansh "Parv';

  6. Abul Fazal -Panchtantara;

  7. Badauni - Ramayana;

  8. Makhmal Khan - Tajak;

  9. Maulana Shah -History of Kashmir;

  10. Zia Naqshbandi -Tutinama and Kok Shastra;

  • He was tolerant. Purushottam Das and Devi explained about Hinduism;

  • Maharaj ji Rana discussed about Zoroastrianism;

  • Hari Vijay Rai Suri discussed about Jainism;

  • Antonio Cabral was sent to Akbar as envoy;

  • Akbar sent Hazi Abdullah as envoy to the Portuguese. Father Rudolph was also sent as envoy;

  • In 1583, Leo Gremont was sent as an ambassador;

  • In 1594, IIrd mission arrived under Jerome Zavier and Father Emmanuel Pinhiro;

  • Benedict Degoes arrived at lahore on 5th May, 1595;