Mughal Empire Aurangzeb, Mughal Administration

Aurangzeb (1658-1707)

Map of Expanded Empier of Moghul by Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb Empier

Map of Expanded Empier of Moghul by Aurangzeb

  • On 30th December, 1659, Aurangzeb reached Khajuha - Fatehpur district of U. P.;

  • In this battle Maharaja Jaswant singh was defeated;

  • On 5th January, 1659, Aurangzeb defeated Shuja in Khajuha;

  • In March 1659, Aurangzeb defeated Dara in the battle of DEORAI - 4 miles south of Ajmer;

  • Dara fled away and proceeded towards Persia via Bolan Pass and Qandhar;

  • While on the way to Dadar- 9 miles east of Bolan pass, his beloved wife NADIRA B ANU succumbed to terrible hardships.

  • But Malik Jeevan, the chieftain of Dadar, whom Dara had once saved from death sentence-betrayed him. Malik Jeevan offered his hospitality, which Dara accepted, but Milik Jeevan sized him along with his 2nd son SHTPHTR SUKOH and 2 daughters delivered them to Aurangzeb's General Bahadur Khan;

  • They were brought to Delhi. Dara and Siphir were paraded in the streets, and on 30th August, 1659, Dara was put to death;

  • Suleman Suko-Dara's son- was put to death in May 1662;

  • Murad was beheaded on 4th September 1661. He was found guilty of murder of Ali Naqavi;

  • On 5th June, 1659, after his decisive battle against Shuja and Dara at Khajua and Deroi respectively, Augangzeb celebrated himself for the second time;

  • Dara was very liberal, he had deep interest in painting and always carried his album with himself;

  • Aurangzeb was crowned the king in 1658 and ruled till 1707 - 50 years.; Personality: -

  • He was an orthodox Sunni;

  • He took the title Alamgir.

  • Patronised persian language;

  • His biggest blunder was his wish to incorporate Marwar;

  • He abolished inland transit duties which were called pandhari;

  • He started the practice of inscribing Qalma in the coins;

  • He forbade the cultivation of Bhang;

  • He abolished NUROZ (Persian festival);

  • He appointed Muhtasib (Censor of public moral);

  • Ramjan was made obligatory;

  • In 1668, he forbade music in the courts;

  • He also abolished Jharankha Darshan and Sati;

  • In 1659, he ordered to stop the construction of temples, in a Farman to the Pandit of Benaras;

  • He also forbade the repairing of old temples in 1664;

  • In 1665, a discriminatory customs duty was fixed to 2.5 per cent for muslims and 5 per cent for the hindus;

  • In 1695, Italian physician GEMELLI CARERI came during his period;

  • Aurangzeb was an expert calligrapher;

  • Fatwa-i-Alamgir had been written under his guidance;

  • He had 4 wives:-

    1. Delras Banu - died in 1657;

    2. Nawab Bai - left him in 1660;

    3. Aurangabadi Mahaldied in 1685;

    4. Udaipuri;

  • He is also known as JINDA PEER, or the living saint;

Mughal Administration

Words used in Mughal Empier
Words used for officers at the time of Mughal and their actual meaning in Now a days




Prime Minister

Mir Bakshi:

Head of the military and intelligence department.


Head of the judiciary department.


Religious endowments and charity department


Censorship and public morals.

Mir Atish:

head of artillery


Head of correspondence department.


Superintendent of imperial workshop.


Head of Sarkar




Head accountant



Mir Saman:

Imperial household


for khalisa land


for cash and salaries


for jagirs


for military accounts


accounts related to the religious department.

  • Mansabdari system was introduced in the Mughal administration by Akbar in his 19th regnal year in 1575.

  • It had two aspects: Zat and Sawar.

  • Zat is the personal rank and Sawar is the indication of the cavalry that mansabdar has to maintain.

  • There were three types of Mansabdars:

    • Amir-i-Umda: Zat varied from 7000-25000;

    • Amir: Zat varied from 500-2500;

    • Mansabdar: Zat varied from 10-500.

  • There were as many as 66 grades but practically only 33 were used.

  • Jehangir introduced Du-Aspa Sih-Aspa in masabdari system.

  • Shah Jahan introduced the Month Scale.

  • Peasants and Raiyyats: Khdkasht: Resident farmers or cultivators

  • Pahikasht: Non resident farmers.

  • Muqarar-i-Raiya: They possessed more land than khudkasht or pahikasht.

  • Muzariah: was more powerful than the Muqara-i-Rayiya.

  • Land was categorised into:

  • Polaj: land which was annually cultivated for each crop in succession and was never allowed to remain fallow.

  • Parti: the land left out of cultivation for time so that it might recover its strength. Chachar: was remained fallow for 3-4 years.

  • Banjar: had remained uncultivated for 5 or more years.

  • For the purpose of measurement of land Akbar introduced Darii Gaj having 41 digits.

  • Ain-i-Dahsala system was introduced by Todar Mai.

Mughal Paintings:

  • Dastan i Amir Hamza or Hamzanamah probably completed in 1576; theie is great controversy regarding the authorship of the book.,

  • Badauni and Shahnawaz Khan says that Mir Sayyid Ali and later Abdus Samad compiled it.

  • Mulla Quzwini - in his Nafais ul Maasir - regards Hamraznamah as Humayuna's brain child, who appointed Mir

  • Sayyid Ali to supervise the work.

  • Abul Fazl mentions 15 painters:

    1. Daswant, committed suicide,

    2. Basawan, most outstanding,

    3. Kesava,

    4. Lai,

    5. Mukund,

    6. Mishkin,

    7. Farrukh Qalmaq,

    8. Madhu,

    9. Jagan,

    10. Mahes,

    11. Khem Karan,

    12. Sanwala,

    13. Haribans,

    14. Ram,

    15. Tara.

  • Important Painting Works:

  1. Razmnamah,

  2. Diwan,

    1. (3)Tarikh-i-khandan-i-Timuriyya,

  3. Akbara-namah,

  4. Baharistan -1594-95,

  5. Anwar i Suhaili -1595-96,

  6. Jami-ut-Tarikh Kamsa of Amir Khusraw,

  7. Diwan - i - Hafiz,

  8. Babur-namah,

  9. Jog Bashisht -1602,

  10. NafahatalUns-1603,

  11. Iyar i Danish (1604-05)


  • Fresco Painting famous

  • European Painting introduced

  • Principle of foreshortening introduced. Important Painters: Dasawan, Basawan : he was known for his artistic longevity, calligraphic outlines, Sanwal Das, Tarachand, Jagannath Lal, Keshava, Harbans, Farrukh Beg, Khurashan Quli, and Jam-shed


  • Portrait Painting

  • Jahangir compiled Gulshan Album

  • Painters: Mansoor: Title : Nadir ul Asr, famous for bird and animal painting Bishan: Portrait Painter Manohar, Tulsi: Mansoor, specialized in court scenes, Abdul Hassan (Herat): Na-dir-us-Zaman was his title; created figure of St. John, Others are Aga Raza, Goverdhan and Daulat.

Shah Jahan:

  • Royal Glory by means of a mass humanity and huge armies.

  • Important painters are Rai Anup, Anu Chitr, Muhammad Nadir Samarquandi, Murad, Mir Hasim, Muhammad Faquirullah and Kalyan Das.

  • Father Jerome Xavier presented Jahangir with Iranian paintings Bichitr

Dara Shikoh:

  • Bird and Vegetal

  • Kept personal album


  • Declined


  • Muhammad Hussain

  • Kashmiri - Zarin Qalan (Akbar)

  • Mir Hashim - Shah Jahan

  • Jawahar Raqam - Aurangzeb's court.

Decline of the Mughal

The exploitative revenue policy:

  • the Jagirdari -Zamindari conflict;

  • the stagnation of trade;

  • industrial and scientific development the factionalism;

  • the rotten bureaucratic superstructure;

  • the scarcity of fresh Jagirs;

  • less emphasis on consolidation, the trend for conspicuous consumption; the tradition of Escheat;

  • greater emphasis on the subsistence oriented agriculture;

  • the inherent contradictions of Jagirdari -Mansabdari systems;

  • the indiscriminate recruitment of Mansabdars;

  • the growing conservatism and fanaticism; the changing complexion of composite nobility; lack of secondary section manufacturing; absence of formal means of organization;

  • the ruthless expansionism; the growing discrepancy between Jama and Hasil;

  • the growing exploitation between of the peasantry;

  • the subsequent revolts of Jats, Sikhs and Satnamis, all in a combined manner brought down one of the most durable empire.

  • Mughals in the 17th century already showed the signs of decline.

  • The desperate expansionism and reference of 'Paibaqi' aptly shows that the Mughals were facing financial crisis.

  • The advent of the western powers, the discrimination of the modern technologies, the emergence of the Marathas and a feeling of regionalism coupled with obscurantist administrative and military institutions made a centralized state intractable.

  • Aurangzeb exhausted his entire wherewithal and resources to quell the feeling of regionalism and to stop the process of decentralization.

  • With his tremendous ability govern and administer, he managed to enact the Mughal Empire but his successors failed to shows their talents to deal with this cumulative decay.

  • Consequently the Mughal empire dwindle) and a number of independent states emerged in the 18th century.