Mughal Empire Bahadur Shah Jafar

Bahadur Shah Jafar (1707-12):

  • After Aurangzeb, there were 3 contenders of throne: -Bahadur Shah (Muazzam)--Kambaksh (was the youngest)

  • -Azzam

  • 14th Marcb.,1707- Azzam proclaimed as the Emperor but was opposed by Chin Quilich Khan, Ghazziuddin Khan Firozjung, Md. Amin Khan.

  • In the meantime, assuming the name of Bahadur Shah, Muazzam declared himself as the emperor.

  • Kambaksh assumed the style of Din-Panah and appointed Ahsan khan as-Mir Bakshi, Taqrab Khan as-Wazir.

  • Bahadur Shah defeated both of them and assumed the title of Shah Alam I or Shah-i-Bekhabar.

  • He tried to remodel Shalimar Bagh.

  • He died on 17th February, 1712.

  • During the time of Bahadur Shah's death there were 4 contenders of throne:

    1. Jahandar Shah;

    2. Azim-us-Shan;

    3. Rafi-us-Shan;

    4. Jahan Shan.

  • Azim-us-Shan was most efficient but because of help of Zulfiqar Khan, Jahandar Shah became the emperor after a prolonged fratricidal war.

Jahandar Shah (1712-1713):

  • He celebrated his accession at Lahore on March, 1712.

  • He had a mistress Lai Kunwar, she had a deep impact on him.

  • Powers were exercised by a powerful noble Saba Chand.

  • Introduced Revenue Farming (middlemen to pay fixed amount and exploitation of peasantry)/Jagirdari System.

  • In 1713, Jahandar Shah was defeated and killed by Farukh Siyar.

Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719):

  • He was the son of Azim-us-Shan and had the support of Saiyyad Brothers-Saiyyad Hussain Ali, who was in Patna and Saiyyad Abdullah, who was in Allahabad.

  • Farrukh suppressed the revolt of Sikhs and their leader Banda Bahadur.

  • There was an attempt made to poison Farukh Siyar. He was strangled to death in 1719.

  • After the death of Farukh, Rafi-ud-Darazat was raised to the throne by Saiyyad Brothers.

Rafi-ud-Darazat (1719):

  • Rafi-ud-Darazat's health declined and his elder brother, Rafi-ud-Daullah was installed on 6th June, 1719 (he was totally under the control of Himmat Khan Barha-his tutor)

  • On 17th September, 1719, Rafi-ud-Darazat died.

  • Saiyyad Brothers in this way had installed 3 Mughal Brothers:

    1. Farukh Siyar;

    2. Rafi-ud-Daullah;

    3. Rafi-ud-Darazat.

  • Rafi-ud-Daullah died in 1719.

Mohammad Shah (1719-1748):

  • He sat on the throne on 28th September, 1719. He is known as Roshan Akhtar, son of Akhtar Jahan Shah, grandson of Bahadur Shah.

  • He is also known as Rangila.

  • He also abolished Jaziyah upon the representation of Sawai Jai Singh and Girdhar Bahadur.

  • Gujrat was lost to the empire in 1735 and Malwa in 1741.

Invasion of Nadir Shah (1738-39):

  • Nadir Shah jolted the empire.

  • He carried with him 60 lakh Rs. and 1000 gold coins, 1 crore worth gold ware, 50 crore worth of jewels and Peacock throne.

Ahmad Shah (1748-1754):

  • Md. Shah was succeeded by Ahmad Shah.

  • He did not have any idea of State craft.

  • He had 2 favourite persons: his own mother-Udhambai and her paramour-Javid Khan.

  • Udhambai was given the title of Qibla-i-Alam.

  • On the advice of Intizam Khan, the emperor moved to Sikandrabad from Delhi.

  • On 26th May, 1754, Malhar Rao Holkar attacked the imperial camp.

  • Ahmad Shah fled to Delhi with his mother, but they were arrested and imprisoned.

Alamgir H (1754-59):

  • He was the youngest son of Jahandar Shah.

  • He succeeded Ahmad Shah.

  • The real powers were exercised by his Wazir, Imad-ul-Mulk.

  • Imad-ul-Mulkhad secured his post with the help of the Marathas.

  • On 28th November, 1759, Alamgir II was stabbed by Balbash Khan- the captain of Imad-ul-Mulk.

  • Imad's agent enthroned Muhi-ul-Millat, grandson of Aurangzeb's youngest son Kambaksh, under the title of Shah Jahan U.

Shah Alam II (1760-1806):

  • He had been expelled in May, 1758, and tried to get the support of Shuja-ud-Daullah, Nawab of Awadh.

  • He was a man of letters and was the master of Turki, Arabic, Persian and Hindustani languages.

  • By November, 1748, he marched into Ruhelakhand with an army.

  • On 7th January, 1759, he marched into Lucknow and was welcomed by Shuja-ud-Daullah, who presented him Rs. 1 lakh in cash and gave rich gifts. He also promised to help him in the projected invasion of Bihar.

  • After the defeat of Buxar in 1764, he was confined to Allahabad in l771.

Jahan Shah IV (1788):

  • Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Kuchuk Jahan Shah Padshah Ghazi also called Bidar Bakht Mahmud Shah Bahadur (1749 – 1790), was Mughal Emperor of India for a brief period in 1788 as a puppet of Ghulam Qadir, after Shah Alam II had been deposed and blinded.

  • He was the son of the former Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur.

  • He was deposed in the same year by the Marathas and killed in 1790 on the orders of Emperor Shah Alam II, though it was he who had helped Shah Alam II during his brief reign by sending him water and food secretly when Ghulam Qadir had ordered that no food or water be supplied to the deposed Emperor.

  • He had been made Subahdar of Punjab on 12 November 1752 as a child.

Akbar II (1806- 1837):

  • Akbar II (22 April 1760 – 28 September 1837), also known as Akbar Shah II, was the penultimate Mughal emperor of India.

  • He reigned from 1806 to 1837.

  • He was the second son of Shah Alam II and the father of Bahadur Shah II.

  • Akbar had little de facto power due to the increasing British control of India through the East India Company.

  • Shortly before his death, he sent Ram Mohan Roy as an ambassador to Britain. During his regime, in 1835, the East India Company (EIC) discontinued calling itself the lieutenant of the Mughal Emperor and issuing coins in his name.

  • The Persian lines in the Company's coins to this effect were deleted.

  • His grave lies next to the dargah of 13th century Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki at Mehrauli, in a marble enclosure, along with that of Bahadur Shah I (also known as Shah Alam I) and Shah Alam II.

Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857):

  • Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal emperor .

  • He became the successor to his father, Akbar II with his death on 28 September 1837.

  • He used Zafar, (translation: victory) a part of his name, for his nom de plume (takhallus) as an Urdu poet, and wrote many Urdu ghazals.

  • He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the city of Delhi.

  • Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma.