Mughal Empire Shahjahan

Shahjahan (1628 -1658)

  • He was bom on 15th January, Thursday, 1592, at Lohore;

  • He was brought up by Akbar's childless wife Ruqaiah Begum;

  • He was close to Noorjahan up to 1622, but she wanted Shahriyar to succeed;

  • After Jahangir's death, Asaf Khan claimed Dwar Baksh;- son of Khusuo as the emperor, while Shahriyar assumed the royal title at Lohore;

  • He was defeated by Dwar Baksh and fled, but was captured and blinded;

  • Asaf Khan summoned Shah Jahan from Banarsi;

  • ShahJahan ascended the throne on 24th February, 1628 and assumed the title -ABUL-MUZAFFAR SHAIBUDDIN MD. SAHIB-I-KIRAN-i-SANI;

  • Shahjahan executed his brothers and nephews;

  • In 1628, Jujhar Singh - son of Raja Bir Singh Dev-the Bundela chief rebelled;

    Detailed Map of Shah Jahan Empier

    Shah Jahan Empier

    Detailed Map of Shah Jahan Empier

  • Shahjahan suppressed this rebellion and Jujhar Singh surrendered;

  • Relations with Portuguese:-

  • Portuguese had secured the grant of the sight of Hoogly in 1537;

  • Later they started their activities in Chittagong;

  • Shahjahan started a ruthless campaign against them;

  • There were 2 reasons for these attacks :-

  • Plunder of a village in Dhaka in East Bengal;

  • Complain made to Kasir Khan (Governor of Dhaka) by a Portuguese merchant named Alfonso; Relations with Qandhar:-

  • Relations with Persia broken down due to the occupation of Qandhar, towards the end of Jahangir's reign;

  • Shah Jahan tried to revive the relation;

  • Qandhar was important to the Mughals strategically because of:-

    1. Sindh Frontier;

    2. Trade Routes:

  • Ali Mardan Khan was the Persian Governor of Qandhar;

  • After 1648, Shahjahan became aggressive towards Qandhar and sent 3 expeditions towards it-1649,1652 and 1653;

  • Mughals could not capture the fort;


  • In 1632, Asaf Khan was succeeded by Mahabat Khan, as the commander of Deccan expedition;

  • In 1632, the Portuguese were ousted from Hoogli and captured it;

  • In 1633, Daulatabad fort was captured;

  • *In 1636, Mandu was captured and Aurangzeb (18 yrs.) became the viceroy of Deccan;

  • Deccan consisted of 4 provinces - Khandesh, Berar, Mandu and Telangana;

  • Aurangzeb tried to crush Bijapur and Golcunda;

  • He had 3 other sons who were posted at 3 different places:-

  1. Shuja-Bengal;

  2. Murad-Gujarat;

  3. Aurangzeb-Deccan;

Personality of Shahjahan:-

  • His wife was Mumtaz Mahal and the Taj Mahal is built in her memory;

  • He also built the 'peacock throne' and Agra fort;

  • He was an excellent callig-raphers and patronized Hindu poets like - Sunder Das, Chintamani, Kavindra-charya;

  • Also patronised several musicians like - Lai Khan (Son-in-law of Tansen), Jagannath (gave the title Mahakavi rai).

  • He took great welfare measures against famine in Gujarat, Kashmir and Punjab;

  • He built Alms names in Burhanpur, Ahemadabad and Surat;

  • Started 10 free kitchens in Punjab;

  • His reign witnessed 10 famines

  • He built Shahjahanabad and lived here in 1648;

  • He also built NAHAR-i-FAU;

  • He also prohibited the killing of animals on Thursdays and Sundays;

  • He re-started the Hijra era;

  • There was enormous influence of the Sufis, during his reign;


  • Dara was the most favoured child by his father;

  • He was 43 years, when the war of succession started;

  • Other 3 sons were the governors of different states :-

    1. Shuja of Bengal;

    2. Aurangzeb of Deccan;

    3. Murad of Gujrat;

  • Of the 3 princes, Shuja was the first to have crowned himself and to march towards Delhi from Bengal;

  • Murad followed suit in December and formed an alliance with Aurangzeb;

  • Suleman Shuko-eldest son of Dara, along with Raja Jai Singh, was against Shuja;

  • He killed his revenue minister ALIQAQI and Sacked the city of Gujrat;

  • Murad started from Ahemdabad on 7th March, 1658 and joined Aurangzeb at Dipalpur on the 24th of April;

  • On 5th May, 1658, in the Battle of Dharmat-14 miles south-west of Ujjain-Aurangzeb defeated Jaswant Singh;

  • On 8th June, 1658, in the battle of Samurgarh - 8 miles east of Agra fort - Dara Shikoh was defeated;

  • Aurangzeb took possession of Agra fort;

  • In the meantime Aurangzeb realized that Murad was gaining popularity;

  • He was immediately arrested and sent to Salimgarh;

  • He was confined to Gwalior and the beheaded;

  • Dara had marched to Lahore when he heard the capture of Agra by Aurangzeb;

  • In the meantime, Aurangzeb was formally crowned as the emperor, on 31st July, 1658, at Delhi;

  • Aurangzeb was the 3rd son of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal; He was born at Dohad in 1618;