Indian National Movement-Early Nationalist Organization, Central Mohammadan National Association, and Moderates

Early Nationalist Organization

  • In 1837, Land Holders' Society was founded in Calcutta

  • The main purpose of the society was to safeguard their rights under the Permanent Settlement.

  • Its initial name was Zamindari Association but later its name was changed to Land Holders' Society. British Indian Society- 1839

  • This society was founded in Lojidoji

  • The free traders formed this association to draw the attention to the despotic and medieval character of the company's administration. Bengal British India Association - 1843

  • It was founded on the advice of George Thomas.

  • George Thomas was the Secretary of British Indian Society

  • It was the first political association of India

  • It was founded by William Adam on the advice of George Thomas

British India Association-1851

Founders:

  1. Radha Kant Dev

  2. Devendra Nath Tagore

  3. Prasana Kumar Bombay Association and Madras Native

Association-1852

Founders:

  1. Jagannath

  2. Shanker Seth

  3. Dadabhai Naoroji

  4. Fadunji

  5. Bhaudaji

Central Mohammadan National Association

  • It was founded in 1878 at Calcutta.

  • It was founded by Sayyid Amir Ah.

Bombay Presidency Association-1885

Founders:

  1. l. K.T.Tailang

  2. Feroz Shah Mehta

  3. Badruddin Tayal Ji.

Indian Union-1884

  • Founded by A.O.Hume.

  • Its first Conference held at Poona

  • Indian National Congress-1885

  • Founded at Gokul Das Tejpal Sanskrit College at Bombay, by A.O.Hume

  • Other important founding members were:

    • Dadabhai Naoroji

    • Feroz Shah Mehta

    • Badruddin Tayalji

    • WC.Banerjee.

  • The word 'Indian National Congress' was given by Dadabhai Naoroji

  • 'Congress' means an assembly of some people, it is derived from American history.

  • The entire period of Congress can be divided into 3 parts:

  1. Moderates- 1885-1905

  2. Extremists- 1905-1916

  3. Gandhian Phase - 1916-1947

Objectives:

  • Fusion into one national whole of all the different and discordant elements that constituted the population of India.

  • Gradual regeneration along all lines- mental, moral, social and political lines of the nation, thus declared.

  • Consolidation of union between England and India.

  • Improvement and consolidation of feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion and province.

  • Indian National Social Conference-1840

  • Founded by M.G Ranade and Raghunath

Moderates

Demands

  1. No taxation without representation.

  2. Demand for swaraj (Calcutta,1906).

  3. Greater Indianization of I.C.S.

  4. Simultaneous examination of I.C.S.

  5. They were against the attack on Burma and Afghanistan.

  6. They popularised swadeshi.

  7. They were against the abandonment of tariff on imports.

  8. They were against the imposition of cotton excise dutv. ;

  9. Agairist drain of wealth.

  10. They demanded the separation of power between Judiciary and Executive.

  11. To repeal the Arms Act.

  12. Reduction in Military expenditure.

  13. Appointment of Indians above the rank of 2nd Lieutenant in Indian Army.

Achievements

  1. The Indian Council Act, 1892 was the result of their demand.

  2. The concept of Swaraj which was highlighted in Banaras and Calcutta session in l905 and l906, continued to be a guiding factor of Congress upto 1929, Lahore session.

  3. Webley Commission was constituted to assess the revenue expenditure.

  4. The Military expenditure reduced considerably.

  5. Swadeshi considerably affects the import patterns.

  6. The Drain Theory exposed the character of British exploitation.

Leaders

  1. l. K. T. Telang

  2. Gopal Krishna Gokhle.

  3. Feroz Shah Mehta.

  4. R.M.Sawhney.

  5. 5.A M Dharmsi.

  6. Badruddin Tayabji.

  7. W.C.Banerjee.

  8. Dada Bhai Naoroji

  9. George Yule

  10. Anand Charlu

  11. Alferd Web

  12. S.N.Banerjee

  13. Rahmat Ullah Sayani

  14. C.Shankaran Aiyar.

  15. Anand Mohan Bose

  16. N.G.Chakravarty

  17. D.E.Wacha

  18. Lal Mohan Ghosh

  19. Henry Cotton. "'

Extremists

  1. Mode of Struggle Non-Cooperation Movement

  2. Passive resistance

  3. The concept of passive resistance was given by Aurobindo Ghosh

  4. Mass Agitation

  5. Self-reliance

  6. The concept of Atma Shakti (self-reliance) was given by Rabindranath Tagore

  7. Self-respect (this concept was given by Swami Vivekanand)

  8. Causes for the rise of Extremists

  9. Due to the mendicancy of the moderates

  10. The international influence:

    1. The defeat of Russia by Japan in 1904-05:

    2. In 1896, Ethiopia defeated Italy;

    3. Influence of the. Russian nihilism

  11. The emergence of radical leaders:

    1. Aurobindo Ghosh

      1. He started a systematic critic of moderate politics.

      2. He published an article called New Lamps for Old and this article created new awareness among the new generation

    2. Ashwini Kumar Dutt

      1. Said about 1897 at Amrauti session that it is a three-days Tamasha

    3. Lala Lajpat Rai

      1. He regarded the Congress session 'it is factuous annual festival of British educated elites'.

    4. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

      1. He started patriotic cum historical cult as the central symbol of nationalism;

      2. In 1894, he started Ganpati Shivaii festival;

      3. In 1896, he started no revenue campaign;

      4. In 1896, he boycotted against the Cotton Excise Tax and therefore he gave the concept of swadeshi;

      5. A historian called Vincent Chirol said 'he is the father of Indian unrest'.

    5. Rabindra Nath Tagore

      1. Through his poems he at-tacked the Congress mendicancy and repeated call for Atma Shakti. by establishing swadeshi industries;

      2. He pleaded melas for mass contact;

      3. Therefore, he may be regarded as the 'father of mass agitation'.

    6. Harkishan Lai

      1. He was an Arva Samajist:

      2. In 1901, he wrote two articles in a journal Kayasth in which he exposed the moderates;

  12. Curzon's reactionary policy of mission, omission and commission.

  13. Partition of Bengal in 1905.

  14. The impact of Drain Theory was on :

    1. M.G. Ranade- The Essays in Indian Economics,

    2. R.C. Putt - Economic History of India,

    3. Dadabhai Naoroji - Poverty and Un-British Rule in India

Extremists Leaders

  1. K.K. Mitra

  2. Brahma Bandhav Upadhyay

  3. Satish Chandra Mukherjee

  4. Pulin Das

  5. B.C. Pal

  6. Ras Bihari Bose

  7. Apurva Kumar Ghosh

  8. Rajnikant Sen

  9. Ashwini Kumar Dutt

  10. Kharpade

Revolutionary Terrorism

Terrorist Activity abroad

I. Home Rule Society

  • it is known as India House

  • its head quarter was Lon-don.

  • it was founded in 1905.

  • they published their own journal called Indian Sociologists

  • it was founded by Shyamji Krishna Varma.

Other leaders:

  • Hardayal -V.D. Savarkar

  • M.L. Dhingra

It was suppressed and they left to Paris with Madam Kama.

II. Indian Independence Committee:

  • Head quarter at Berlin

  • Founder was Virendra Nath Chattopadhyay

  • Works :

    • Sent mission to Baghdad, Istanbul, Persia and Kabul

    • Raja Mahendra Pratap was sent to Kabul

    • Maulana Barkatullah and Maulana Obeidullah Sindhi formed a provinsional government of India.

III. Indian National Party

  • Head quarter was at Zurich

  • Founder was Champak Raman Pillai

  • Other members:

    • Hardayal

    • Taraknath

    • Barakutullah

    • Chandrakant Chakravorty

    • Harambha Lal

IV. Paris Indian Society

  • Head quarter was at Paris

  • Founder was Madam Bhikaji Kama

  • Members:

    • S.S. Rana

    • M.P.T. Acharya

    • K.R. Kotwal

V. Pan Islamic Party:

  • Founded by Mahendra Pratap

  • Headquarter was at Kabul

  • Important members :

    • Barakutullah

    • Maulana Obeidullah

VI. Gadar Party:

  • Headquarter was at Yugantar Ashram, San Fransisco (USA);

  • Founded by Lala Hardayal (and Sohan Singh Bhakna)

  • Sohan Singh Bhakna was the President

  • Hardayal was the General Secy.

  • Pandit Kashi Ram was the treasurer

  • The old name of the Gadar Party was Hindi Association

  • which was set up in Port Land in May 1913.

  • Important Members:

    • Bhai Parmanand

    • Ram Chandra -Gadar's weekly journal was called Hindustan Gadar and the front page of this journal contained the article Angrezi Raj Ka Kachcha Chittha

  • Methods of Gadar Party:

    • To murder the loyal subjects and officials

    • Hoisting the revolutionary flag

    • Breaking of thejail

    • Looting treasury and thana

    • Propagating through literature

    • Commission of rlacoits

    • The procurement of the anns

    • Manufacture of bombs

    • Formation of secret societies

    • Destruction of railways and telegraph

  • To publish paper in four languages : Hindi, Urdu, Gurumukhi and English

  • Hardayal was later arrested and thereafter, he was released on hail and then he escaped safely to Geneva and edited a paper called Vande Matram.

  • In America, his disciple Ram Chandra headed the Gadar Party

  • The Gadar Party became quite active during World War-I (WW-I)

  • On 29th August, 1914, the Gadar Party sent 60 revolutionaries in India in S.S. Korea ship; they were detained at HongKong.

  • But, a lot of revolutionaries escaped and reached to India and they did a lot of terrorist activities in India.

Komagata Maru Incident

  • Baba Gurdit Singly a Sikh of Amritsar, chartered a Japanese ship called Koma Gata Maru, early in 1914 to carry large number of Punjabis to Canada but they were not al-lowed to land in Canada and the ship returned to India.

  • The British government thought that they are all revolutionary of Gadar Party.

  • They were compelled to take a train from Calcutta en route to Punjab.

  • Only 60 passengers agreed and the rest wanted to go to Calcutta and refused to get into Punjab train.

  • Police attacked them and 18 Sikhs were killed, 29 disappeared and rest were arrested.