Indian National Movement-Indian National Army and Evolution of Princely States

Indian National Army

The Foundation of Indian National Army

  • In 1939-40, Subhash Chandra Bose dissatisfied with the political ideology of the Indian National Congress.

  • On 16-17 January 1941, Netaji slipped out of his Elgin Road home in disguise and with an assumed name of Maulvi Ziauddin he reached Delhi and boarded the Frontier Mail for Peshawar. He reached Japan where he was received by Rash Behari Bose.

  • Rash Behari Bose, one of the oldest Indian revolutionaries escaped from India after dropping a bomb on Lord Hardingein 1911.

  • On 15th July 1942 the Indian National Army was formed as an organized body of troops.

  • Capt. Mohan Singh became the General Officer Commanding of the Indian National Army.

  • But, by December 1942, serious differences emerged between the INA officers led by Mohan Singh and the Japanese over the role that the INA was to play.

  • Mohan Singh and Niranjan Singh Gill were arrested

  • Netaji arrived in Singapore on 2 July 1943 and on the 25 August, he assumed Supreme Command of the USA.

  • On 21 October 1943, Netaji formed the Provisional Government of Azad Hind.

  • This Government was recognized by all the axis powers. Advance Headquarters of INA and the Provisional Government of Azad Hind headed by Netaji also moved to Rangoon.


  • Subhas Chandra Bose : Head of State, Prime Minister and Minister for War and Foreign Affairs

  • Capt. Mrs. Lakshmi : Women's Organization

  • S.A.Ayer : Publicity and Propaganda

  • Lt. Col. A.C.Chatterjee : Finance

  • A.M.Sahay : Secretary (with Ministerial rank)

  • Rash Behari Bose : Supreme Adviser

  • A.N.Sarkar: Legal Adviser

  • It had four brigades: Gandhi, Azad, Nehru and Subhas

  • On 6th July 1944, a regiment called the Rani Jhansi was formed.

INA Trials

  • The defense of the INA prisoners was taken up by the Congress and Bhulabhai Desai, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Kailashnath Katju, Jawaharlal Nehru and Aruna Asaf Ali appeared in court in the historic Red Fort trials.

  • The persons who faced the trials were Prem Sahgal, Shah Nawaz, and Gurmukh. S. Dhillion.

  • After the suspension of INA activities, Netaji went back to Singapore. On 15 August 1945, Japan surrendered and on 17 August 1945 Netaji took a plane from Saigon. On 22 August 1945, Radio Tokyo announced that Netaji died in an air crash in Formosa.

Royal Indian Navy Mutiny: 1946

  • Started on 18th February, when 1,100 naval ratings of the Signal School of HMIS Taalwar in Bombay went on a hunger-strike in protest against

    1. Racial discrimination,

    2. Hardships regarding pay and food,

    3. Abuses to boot.

  • The arrest of B.C. Dutt, aerating, for scrawling Quit India on the HMIS Talwar, was sorely resented.

  • Admiral Godfrey, Flag officer-Commanding, suggested them to surrender.

  • The ratings elected a Naval Central Strike Committee, headed by M.S.Khan.

  • They formulated following demands:

    1. Better food,

    2. Equality with Britishers,

    3. Release of INA and other political prisoners,

    4. Withdrawal of Indian troops from Indonesia.

  • With the full sympathy for RIN strikes - Calcutta, Bombay felt most and Europeans, Offices, Police Stations, YMCA attacked.

  • The Bombay CPI called for a general strike; supported by Congress Socialist leaders Aruna Asaf Ali and Achyut Patwardhan.

  • On 28th February, it was due to the efforts of Vallabhbhai Patel, the ratings surrendered.

  • In the RIN Revolt, Karachi was the main centre, second only to Bombay, where HMIS Hindustan along with others went on strike.

  • Sympathetic token strikes took place in the military establishments in Madras, Vishakhapatnam, Calcutta, Delhi, Cochin, Jamnagar, the Andamans, Bahrain and Aden.

  • 78 ships and 20 shore establishments, involving 20,000 ratings, were affected.

Evolution of Princely States


  1. EIC's struggle for equality-1740-65.

  2. The Ring Fence Policy-1765-1813.

  3. Policy of Subordinate Isolation-1813-1857.

  4. Policy of Subordinate Union-1857-1935.

  5. Chamber of Princes-1920's.

  6. Policy of Federation-1935-47.

  7. AISPC-1920-47.

EIC's struggle for Equality: 1740-1765

Period marked by a triangular contact between: France, Portuguese and British

  1. Bengal

  2. Oudh.

  3. Rohilkhand

  4. Punjab.

  5. Rajputana: Amber

  6. Mysore.

  7. Northern Sarkar.

  8. Hyderabad.

  9. Marathas:

    1. Holkar: Malwa-above Narmada

    2. Peshwa: Poona and Khandesh

    3. Sindhia: Gwalior

    4. Gaelewad: Gujarat and Balaghat

  10. Kerala: Independent States-Calicut Travancore Tanjore Cochin

  11. Mughal.

  12. Sikhs.

  13. British

  • Bengal:- Battle of Plassey (1757)

  • Battle of Buxar (1764)

  • Northern Sarkar-1765:or Sarkar of Guntur.

The Policy of Ring Fence or Buffer States: 1765-1813

  • Warren Hastings:-1774-1785

  • Lord Cornwallis:-1786-1793

  • JohnShore:-1793-1798

  • Lord Wellesley:-1798-1805

  • EarlMinto:-1807-1813

  1. Mysore:

    1. Malabar

    2. Dindigul

    3. Baramahal

    4. Madras

  2. Marathas:

    1. Allahabad-Bengal

    2. Northern Sarkar

    3. Bombay

  3. Nizam (Hyderabad):

    1. Madras

    2. Sarkar of Guntur

    3. Baramahal

  4. Carnatic:

  1. Madras

  2. Baramahal

Subsidiary Alliance:

  • to accept East India Company's (EIC) suzerainty,

  • moribundity-no inter state negotiations without EIC's permission,

  • negotiations on it's behalf will be done by EIC,

  • in big states EIC will maintain it's army ; at the expenditure of Princely States; EIC will command it,

  • the foreigners can be entertained with the permission of EIC,

  • mutual restitution ,

  • to help East India Company in the attack on another state; any attack on princely states would be regarded as an attack on EIC

  • Appointment of British resident.

States Brought under British Control by Subsidiary alliance:

States Brought under British Control
States brought under British control and corresponding year






































Buffer States:

  1. an independent state ; with the control of one power between two big powers,

  2. the battle field will be on the buffer state,

  3. shield -aggression,

  4. negotiations will be controlled by the state which controls the buffer state.

Policy of subordinate isolation (1813-1857):

  • Founder of the policy was Lord Hastings (1813-1823),

  • Lord Dalhousie also followed the same policy (1856)

Theory of Paramountcy:

  • Subordinate co-operation,

  • Supremacy of EIC,

  • No external sovereignty,

  • States have only internal sovereignty,

  • Presence of British residents in all states,

  • The British resident would be the organ of communication between British India and Princely states.

Governor Generals who followed the theory

  • William Bentinck(1828-1833)-states annexed during his governorship

    • Mysore (1831)

    • Cachar (1832)

    • Coorg (1834)

    • Jaintia( 1835)

  • Lord Auckland(1836-1842)-states annexed during his governorship:

    • Kurnul (1839)

    • Mandavi (1839)

    • Kolaba (1840)

    • Jalaun (1840)

  • Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856)-states annexed during his governorship:

    • Punjab (1849)

    • Pegu (1852)

    • Sikkim(1850)

    • Satara(1848)

    • Jaitpur and Sambalpur (1849)

    • Bhagat (1850)

    • Udaipur (1852)

    • Jhansi(1853)

    • Nagpur (1854)

    • Awadh (1856).

The Policy of Subordinate Union (1857-1935)

  • The following changes were brought about by Queen's Proclamation of 1858.

  • ( Repercussions of 1857 ):

  • The power was transferred from EIC to British parliament,

  • No social legislation,

  • No reforms,

  • No educational change,

  • No annexation.

  • Grants,

  • Crown became he paramount power,

  • Princes were granted possession and not internal sovereignty,

  • They were reduced to the level of feudatories and vassals,

  • The states were required to help the British to provide all facilities in their plans and military enforcement.

  • Governor General was to be the sole dispensor, for eg. in the case of:

  • In 1867, Nawab of Tonk, Md. Ali Khan was forced to resign.

  • Gaekwad was removed from the Gaddi in the same year.

  • In 1889, Kashmir's Maharaja was forced to resign.

  • In 1892, Khan of Kalat was forced to resign.

Result of the British Policy

  • most irresponsible govt.

  • from 1905 onwards the Government of India followed the policy of co-operation towards the Indian states.

  • In 1876, Lord Lytton formed Indian Privy Council.

  • In 1921, an Indian member, Narendra Mandal, was appointed in Chamber of Princes.

  • 109 states enjoyed full legislative and judicial powers and were represented directly.

  • 127 states enjoyed limited legislative and judicial powers and were represented by 12 members chosen among themselves.

  • 326 states were of feudal type.