Indian National Movement-Cripps Mission, Rajagopalachari Formula (1944), Wavell Plan, Cabinet Mission Plan, Indian Independence Act: 1947, Police, Military Administration and Land Revenue Systems

The Cripps Mission

Cause for the coming up of Cripps Mission:

  1. Growing power of Japan

  2. growing awareness of Indians

  3. Changing attitude of the Congress

  4. Ongoing World War under which British imperialism was stretched.

  5. Tej Bahadur Sapru and 12 members requested Churchill to confer upon the Executive Council, the status of national government.

  6. Pressure of Chiang Kai Shek. Aim:

  1. Inorder to achieve the earliest possible realization of self government in India.

  2. British government proposed that steps should be taken to create a new Indian union which will have full status of dominion.

  3. Immediately upon the cessation of hostilities, a constitution making body to be established.

  4. If any province or provinces do not accept the constitution they can make their own constitution.

  5. The scheme had two parts:

  1. Formulation of dominion constitution. In the process, the first step would be to conduct election in provincial legislatures.

  2. As the second step, the members of lower houses of legislature together with the representatives of states were to function as the Electoral College whose business was to elect the constitution-making body and it should be 1/10th of the total membership of electoral college.

C. Rajagopalachari Formula: 1944

  • In 1944, C. Rajagopalachari proposed that after the termination of the war, a Commission could be appointed for demarcating contiguous districts in the north-west and east where mulsims were in absolute majority. In the areas thus demarcated, a plebiscite would be held on the basis of adult suffrage that would ultimately decide the issue of separation from Hindustan. If the majority decided in favor of forming a separate Sovereign state, such decision could be accepted.

  • In case of acceptance of partition, argument to be made jointly for safeguarding defence, commerce, communications etc. The above terms

  • would be operative only if England transferred full powers to India.

  • Muslim League was expected to endorse the Congress demand for independence and cooperate with it in the formation of provisional government for the interim period.

  • Jinnah objected as he wanted Congress to accept the two-nation theory and wanted only muslims of the northwest and the east of India to vote in the plebiscite. Hindu leaders led by V. D. Savarkar condemned the plan.

Wavell Plan

(June 14, 1945)

  1. After the end of war, the negotiations started.

  2. Bhoolabhai Desai and Liaqat Ali held talks but it yielded no positive results.

  3. Wavell came out with the following points;

    1. Settlement of communal issue.

    2. Formation of new Executive Council.

    3. the proposed Council was to represent main communities and would constitute separate election of Hindus and Muslims.

    4. Viceroy and Commander-in-Chief's position was to remain unchanged.

    5. Functions of Executive Council:

    1. Persecute the war.

    2. Carry out Government of India.

    3. Think about the Constitution.

    4. Portfolio of member of External Affairs held by Viceroy to be transferred to Indian member.

  4. On 25th June, 1945, Gandhi-Jinnah talks held in Simla. The talks failed because Jinnah held that no constitution without Pakistan whereas Gandhiji wanted a united India.

New Wavell's Plan

(19th September, 1945)

  1. To convene a constitution-making body and to conduct elections.

  2. Intended to consult the representatives of Indian states in what way they could part in constitution-making process.

  3. New Executive Council to be brought.

Cabinet Mission Plan

  1. The members were Patrick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander; the Cabinet ministers reached New Delhi on 24th March, 1946.

  2. Recommendations of Cabinet Mission:

  1. Positive Proposals:

    1. There should be a Union of India dealing with three subjects - foreign affairs, defence and communication, having the powers necessary to raise the finances required for diese subjects.

    2. The union should have an executive and the legislature of representatives chosen from British India and the States; any question raising a major communal issue in legislature should require for its decision, a majority of the representatives present and voting, of each of the two major communities as well as the majority of all me members present and voting.

    3. AH subjects other than die union subjects and all residuary powers should rest in the provinces.

    4. The state should retain all subjects and powers other than those ceded to the Union.

    5. Provinces should be free to form groups (sub-federation).

    6. The constitution of the union of the groups should provide for a reconsideration of the terms of the constitution after an initial period of 10 years and at the interval of 10 years thereafter.

  2. With regard to Constitution-making body:

  1. The formation of Constituent Assembly on the basis of recently elected Provincial Legislative Assemblies after correcting the defects in them by allotting to each province, a total number of seats proportional to its population roughly in me ratio of 1:1 million.

  2. The division of provincial allocation of seats between the main communities in each province in proportion to their population.

  3. The provision of the election of a representative of a community by its members in the provincial legislature. This proposal contemplated a Constituent Assembly of 292 members from British India and 93 from the States. From British India, out of 292 members, 210 will be Hindus, 78 will be muslims and 4 will be Sikhs.

  4. The preliminary meeting of the Constituent Assembly would decide the order of business, elect a chairman and other officers and an advisory committee to determine the rights of citizens, safeguards for minorities and administration of tribal and excluded areas.

  5. The Assembly would negotiate a treaty between the union assembly and the United Kingdom for matters arising out of the matters of transfer of power.

  6. An interim government would be constituted by the Constitution-making body.

Mountbatten Plan

(3rd June, 1947)

  1. Proposals:

    1. Referendum in North-West Frontier Province.

    2. Referendum in Sylhet.

    3. Legislative Assembly of Bengal and Punjab to meet in order to decide about me partition.

  2. The outcomes of the Plan were that East Bengal, West Punjab, Sylhet and NWFP would go to Pakistan and East Punjab and West Bengal to India.

Indian Independence Act: 1947

  1. It was presented first in the House of Commons by Atlee, the then Prime Minister.

  2. It was passed by the House of Commons on 15th July and House of Lords on 16th July and it got the King's Accent on 18th July.

  3. It was implemented on the 14th of August with the following provisions:

  1. Two independent dominions known as India and Pakistan were to be set up on 15th August, 1947.

  2. Pakistan to comprise of Sindh, British Baluchistan, NWFP, East Bengal and West Punjab.

  3. For each dominion, there would be a Governor-General appointed by Crown.

  4. Jurisdiction of British Parliament over India will cease from that day and the title of the Emperor of India would be omitted.

  5. The Governor-General would implement the' Indian Independence Act.

  6. Indian Army was to be divided into these two dominions.

  7. Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor General of Independent India and M.A. Jinnah, that of Pakistan.

Education

  • In 1791, Sanskrit College was established in Benaras by Duncan.

  • In 1800, Lord Wellesley founded fort Willian College, to train civil servants.

  • On 20th January, 1817, Hindu College was established at Calcutta;

  • In 1818, Baptist mission College founded by missionaries in Srirampur;

  • In 1828, Gaur Mohan Avadhi established oriental seminary;

  • In 1820, David Hair, Raja Ray Mohan Roy and G. A. Turnbull, started schools;

  • Alexander Duff founded Hindu the philanthropic society in 1840;

  • Derozio also started 3 papers :

    1. The Inquirer;

    2. The Quill;

    3. Hesperus;

  • In 1823, Lord Amherst established the Sanskrit college in Calcutta, to encourage oriental learning;

  • Freedom of press granted in 1835 and English books were made available at a comparatively low price;

  • In 1837, Persian was abolished as the court languages and was substituted by English for higher courts and Indian languages for lower courts;

  • In 1835, draft was made by Charles Wood (President of Education Board) was dispatched to India popularly known as Wood's Dispatch (19th July, 1854); this called Magna Carat of english education; It is also called intellectual charter.

Features of Wood's Dispatch:-

  1. The construction of separate department for administration for education in each state;

  2. The establishment of institutions for training teachers for all classes of schools;

  3. The maintenance of the existing government colleges and high schools.

  4. Establishment of new middle schools

  5. Increase attention to vernacular schools,

  6. indigenous or otherwise, for elementary education;

  7. Introduction of Grant in aid;

  8. In 1847, 2 Engineering Colleges - Roorkee, Calcutta (1856);

1885-1905

  • Punjab University, University of Lahore -1882;

  • Allahabad University -1887;

  • On 21st February, 1882 Lard Ripon constituted a committee under W.W. Hunter,

  • In 1902, University Commission was established under the chairmanship of Thomas Raleigh, who was legal member of viceroy's executive council. The members were :-

    1. Sayyed Hussain Bilgrami;

    2. Mr. Justice Gurudas Banerjee (a Judge of Calcutta High Court)

  • First national conference on education took place on 22nd October, 1927 at Wardha. Dr. Zakir Hussain become the chairman and formulated the syllabus with following features;

    1. Introduction of basic handicraft in syllabus ;

    2. Removal of english upto class 7 ;

    3. 7 years of education free compulsory and nation wide;

  • In 1944 Sergeant Report was submitted. John Sergeant was appointed advisor of Central education board.

  • The objective was ;

  1. Free primary education for children between 3-6 yrs or. age;

  2. Universal compulsory free primary on basis education for children between ages of 6-14 years.

  3. University course of three years -

  4. Technical education and art jind commerce to be emphasized;

  5. Liquidation of adult illiteracy;

  6. Physical education training and creation of employment bureaus;

  7. Encouragement of handicapped education;

Post-Independence:

  1. Dr. Radha Krishanan Committee, 1948

  2. UGC Constituted in 1954

  3. Kothari Commission in 1964

  4. Education under concurrent list in 1976 ;

  5. New Education policy -1986

Judicary

  • Warren Hastings established 2 courts"

    1. Diwani Adalat at District Level, to tackle the civil case headed by the collector ;

    2. Fauzdari Adalat for criminal cases presided by Mufti/Qazi under the collectors;

  • The apex court was at Calcutta, for civil cases Sadr Diwani Adalat and Sadar Nizamat for criminal cases ; In 1773, Supreme Court was created by the Regulating Act, at Calcutta but its power remained undefined;

  • In 1781, Hastings revived the Sadr Diwani Adalat and shifted it to Calcutta and his council presided over it.

  • A central Criminal court also founded in Calcutta and four Circuit Courts were established at Calcutta, Murshidabad, Dacca and Patna.

  • Lord Cornwallis divested collectors of Magisterial power and Diwani Adalat was named as the jilla court and as many as 23 district courts were established, each presided by an English Judge;

  • In 1833, Charter Act appointed a Law Commission

  • In 1860, Penal Code come into being.

  • In 1861, code of criminal procedure was established

  • and the 3rd law commission come into force.

  • In 1861, Indian High Court (HC) Act was passed in which three High Courts were established - Calcutta, Madras and Bombay;

  • HC was headed by a Chief Justice and 15 other judges ;

  • In 1866, Allahabad HC was established for North-West Province ;

  • In 1883, Ilbert Bill controversy started. Courtney Ilbert was a law member of Government of India. This law enabled Indian magistrates and session judges to try Europeans in criminal cases. The bill attracted a vehement protest from the British residents in India who organised a movement against it. At last the bill was repealed.

  • The Federal Court established by Government of India Act. 1935. It was a forerunner of the Supreme Court of India. This was the 2nd highest court in the judicial hierarchy of India.

  • In September 1949, the Federal Court became the final court

Civil Services 1st Phase (Till 1858) :

  • Lord Welleslley started a training college in Fort William, in 1800.

  • In 1806, the company established an East India college at Hailybury for imparting 2 years training to the young officers.

  • The Civil Service was started in 1833, under Charter Act.

  • In 1853, the civil services became an open competition however the exams were conducted in London only.

  • The 1st exam was held in 1855 under the Board of control's supervision.

  • On 31st January 1858, the college of Hailybury was abolished and affairs of exam

  • Was entrusted to civil service commissioners.

End Phase (1857-1947):

  • In 1878, the statutory civil services was divided Into 2 parts :

    1. Covenant Civil Services -1/6 the to be filled by local people nominated by the viceroy;

    2. Un-covenated civil services - nominated by the local Government subject to approval of the governors.

  • Un 1886, a public service commission appointed under the chairmanship of Aitchison, the then governor of Punjab.

  • In 1893, House of commons recommended the simultaneous exams but was not enforced.

Problem regarding the age

  • In 1853, the age of admission to the exam was fixed at 23 but in 1859 to 22, in 1866 to 21 and in 1876 to 19.

  • S N Banarjee was dismissed form the service on frivolous grounds and later on went to form Indian Association.

  • In 1912, a royal commission under Lord Islingston recommended the simultaneous examination but it, still, was not enforced.

  • In 1923, a royal commission under Lord Lee was constituted.

  • This commission to, recommended the simultaneous Civil Services exams and on this basis in 1924, the Civil Services exams were held simultaneously in England and India.

Finance under British Rule

  • Lord Mayo was first to initiate large scale financial reforms in India.

  • In 1870 under John Strachey, Money reforms come about;

  • It initiated various measures for financial decentralization by -

    1. Share in revenue of the provinces not by a fixed grant but by share;

    2. Inland customs to be abandoned

    3. Duty on sugar levied on inland customs abolished;

  • Lord Lytton also tried to bring about reforms in 1877.

    1. Certain subjects were transferred to provinces like justice, revenue, etc.

    2. Also assigned a fixed share of income realized from an area form certain sources like stamps sources etc.

    3. 5 years contracts negotiated with the provinces, but in 1879, because of Afghan war, the grants were cut in the provincial allocation

  • In 1904, Curzon fixed land revenue of provinces;

  • In 1912, royal decentralised commission set up, which made fixed revenue to provinces on permanent basis;

  • The Government of India Act, 1919 maintained the position of viceroy, who controlled revenue and was responsible to the crown in London.

Police

  • Lord Cornwallis started police services in India in 1791 appointed a superintendent of police;

  • In 1808, Lord Minto appointed an SP for division who used to work with the help of spies ; ;

  • In 1927, a police system was founded in Bombay ;

  • William Bentick abolished the post of SP, and district magistrate became the head of police and commissioner used to work as SP in then-division.

  • In 1860, IG was made the head of state, DIG of range and SP of District

  • In 1861, police set was formulated;

  • SP and his whole staff placed under District Magistrate ;

  • 1st Inspector General of Police was appointed in Bombay in 1885;

  • On 9th July, 1902, the Police Commission was constituted ;

  • CIB was made at Centre and CID at the province;

  • Police commission appointed by Lord Curzon, Andrew Fraser was Chairman and Stewart was the secretary

Military Administration

  • Phase I (Pre-1857 Pd.)

  • The companies military college at Addis Combe was closed and all new appointments the staff corps were to be made only form the British army.

  • Officers after 12 years service (Subsequently reduced to 11 years later to 9 years.), were to become captains, after 20 years service (reduced to 18) = Majors, after 26 years = lieutenant col.) and 31 years. Col.

  • In 1879, Lord Lytton assemble the army organization commission;

  • In 1903, Indian staff corps was renamed the Indian Army;

  • In 1895 the 3 old presidency armies were organized into 4 army commands named after Punjab, Madras, Bombay and Bengal, each under a Lt General.

  • In 1889, imperial service troops was constituted ;

  • In 1902, Lord Kitchener became commander-in-chief. He proposed the creation of an army department under the C'NC ;

  • In 1895, Royal commission appointed under lord Welby.

Military Administration (Post-1857):

  • In 1863, the naval force was abolished and was renamed as Royal Navy.

  • Major Stringer Lawrence is called 'Father of British Indian Army';

  • In 1931, 3 presidency's army was amalgamated into the staff corps

  • In 1918, the recruitment of Indians began on the basis of commissioned rank;

  • In 1902, Military Academy of Dehradun founded and then Royal Air Force ;

Social Legislation

  • When British come they adopted stern policy against 'Sati'

  • The Srirampur school also worked hard to remove 'Sati'

  • On 8th November 1829, William Bentick took decision to abolish Sati and finally on 4th December 1829, 'Sati' was declared by regulation XVU to be illegal in the Bengal presidency and punishable by the criminal courts;

  • A similar regulation was passed in Madras on 2nd February 1830;

Widow Re-Marriage

  • Ishwarchanda Vidhya Sagar made efforts in this field;

  • Hindu Widow Re-Marriage Act (Act XV of 1856) was passed on 26th July, 1856. It legalised the window re-marriage, not with standing any custom or interpretation of Hindu law.

  • In 1866, a window remarriage association started in Bombay.

  • In 1896, Prof. D.K.Karve, founded widows Home in Pune;

  • In 1898, Virasalingam Pantulu founded a similar home in Madras;

Slavery

  • On 18th January 1823, L.L. Stanhope made a passionate appeal to abolish slavery in India.

  • In 1811, the importation of slaves into India was forbidden.

  • The regulation about the enslavement of wives and children of the dacoits was passed in the 1st years of Warren Hasting's rule in Bengal.

  • In 1789, an official proclamation made slavery illegal. The slave trade was abolished by Britain in 1870.

  • In 1832, purchase and sale of slaves was made a criminal offence.

  • Finally in 1933, slavery abolished in Britain. The Charter Act of 1833, required the Governor General in Council to abolish slavery as soon as it could be safely and conveniently done.

  • Indian Act V of 1843 made slavery illegal in India, Mainly because of the efforts off Ellenborough.

  • In Bengal, slavery already prohibited by Regulation X of 1811.

Child Marriage

  • In 1860, the age of consent was passed in which the marriage age was increased to 10 years.

  • In 1891, the marriage age increased to 12 years in 1925 =13 years.

  • In 1929, child marriage restrained act or the Sharda Bill was passed.

  • In was named after Rai Sahib Har Vilas Sharda.

  • In 1955, the age of Bridegroom increased to 18 and the Bride to 15.

Infanticide of Females

  • Although Bengal Regulation XXI of 1795 and Regulation III of 1804, declared such infanticide to be a under, but its continued.

  • In 1870, compulsory Birth Registration was enforced.

Local Self Government

  • Lord Mayo's decentralization scheme of 1870, was a significant step in the direction of local self Government.

  • In 1871, Municipal Acts were passed in different provinces

  • In 1870, Mayo declared that local provision, health, sanitation and education would be devoted to local Government

  • In 1882, Lord Rippon, who is called the Father of Local Self Government made certain changes

  1. Establishment of local board throughout the country ;

  2. The smallest administrative i.e. the subdivision, the Taluk or Tahsil was ordinarily to form the maximum area to be placed under a local board;

  3. The local boards, both urban and rural will have a large preponderance with non-official members;

  4. The non-official members to hold office for 2 years after election or appointment;

  5. In no case the official members to be more than l/3rd of the whole;

  6. Non-official persons were to act as the chairman of the local boards;

Stages of Colonialism:

R.C. Dutt has categorised British colonialism into three stages:

  1. 1797 - 1813 = Merchant Capital

  2. 1813 - 1857 = Industrial Capital

  3. 1857 - 1947 = Finance Capital

Land Revenue Systems

Permanent System:

  • It was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1793, in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

  • Under this settlement, the zamindars were declared as

  • the owner of the land. The zamindars had to collect the revenue and give it to the British. Out of the total revenue collected zamindar gave 10/11 to the Britishers and kept with him the rest 1/11.

Ryotwari System:

  • Due to prevent some problems raised during the Permanent Settlement, this modified system was introduced in the Madras and Bombay presidencies.

  • In this system there was no intermediary zamindars like that in Permanent Settlement and British negotiated directly with the riots who were also the owners of the land.

  • This system was recommended by Munro and Charles Reed.

Mahalwari System:

  • This can be considered as the modified version of the Permanent Settlement and was introduced in Punjab, North West Frontier Province, ganga Valley and some parts of Central India.

  • In this system land revenue was appropriated not from a single person but from the group of villages called as Mahals. British chose the person who had the responsibility to collect the revenue from the group of village s and hen to deposit it with the Butishers.

  • Mckenzie was the person who introduced this system. Revenue was periodically revised.

  • Due to these settlements a class of Absentee Landlordism was emerged who also became the first recipient of English education. This class further emerged as the middle class.