Revolutionary Terrorism in India-Phase I, Phase II and Revolutionary Activities in Bengal

Phase I

Anusilan Samiti

  • It was the first revolutionary organization of Bengal

  • Second branch at Baroda

  • the leader was Barindra Kumar Ghosh

  • Actual leader was P.Mitra

  • In 1908, the samiti published a book called Bhawani Mandir.

  • In 1909,they published Vartaman Ranniti

  • They also published a periodical called Yugnatar

  • They also published a book Mukti Kon Pathe (which way lip salyatinnl

  • Barindra Ghosh tried to explore a bomb in Maniktala in Calcutta

  • Members:

    • Gurudas Banerjee

    • B.C. Pal

  • Both of them believed in the cult of Durga

  • Aurobindo Ghosh started Anushilan Samiti in Baroda

  • He sent Jatindra Nath Banerjee to Calcutta and his association merged with Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta

Prafulla Chalri and Khudi Ram Bose

  • They tried to kill Kings Ford, Chief Presidency Magistrate, who was a judge at Muzaffarpur in Bihar but Mrs. Kennedy and her daughter were killed instead in the blast.

  • Prafulla Chaki was arrested but he shot himself dead and Khudiram was hanged.

  • This "bomb-blast occurred on 30th April 1908.

Aurobindro Ghosh and Barindra Ghosh

  • They were arrested on May, 2, 1908.

  • Barindra was sentenced for life imprisonment (Kalapani) and Aurobindo Ghosh was acquited.

  • This conspiracy was called Alipur Conspiracy.

  • The conspiracy was leaked to the authorities by Narendra Gosain who was killed by Kanhiya Lai Dutta and Satyen Bose with in the jail compound.

  • 1904: Lala Hardayal, Ajit Singh and Sufi Amba Prasad formed a group at Saharanpur.

1900: V D. Savarkar started Mitra Mela at Nasik

  • He was influenced by Mazzini's Young Italy

  • In 1906/V.D. Savarkar founded Abhinav Bharat, its members were,

    • Mirza Abbas,

    • Sikandar Hyat,

    • P N. Bapat and

    • Hem Chandra Das.

Arjun Lai Sethi

  • He founded an educational institute which became a centre of revolutionary activities.

Vanchi Aiyar

  • He belonged to 'Bharat Mata Association'

  • In 1911, the District Magistrate of Tinnevali, Asche was shot dead by him.

  • He committed suicide after this incident.


  • M. L. Dhingra shot down Curzon Willy at London.


  • Madam Kama became active.

  • She is called Mother of Indian Revolution.

Damodar Chapekar and Bal Krishan Chapekar (Chapekar Bandhu)

  • In 1897, W.C. Rand (President of Plague Committee) and Ayrest was killed by Damodar Chapekar and Bal Krishna Chapekar at Poona. This was the first political assassination and they just wanted to kill Rand.

  • On 8th February, 1899 Chapekar brother Basudev killed David, during the time of Diamond jubilee celebration of coronation of Queen Victoria (informed by David brothers).


  • Jackson, D.M. of Nasik, was killed by Ganesh Savarkar

  • He was younger brother of V.D. Savarkar and belonged to Abhinav Bharat Group.


  • On 16th December, 1907, a train was blown up and Lt. Gen. Sir Andrew Frazer luckily escaped.

1912-13: Delhi Conspiracy

  • A group of persons tried to kill Lord Hardinge.

  • In December, 1912, they were arrested.

  • Four of the accused arrested were:

    • Amir Chand;

    • Awadh Bihari;

    • Bal Mukund;

    • Basant Kumar Biswas.

Phase II

Hindustan Republican Association

  • In 1924, at Kanpur, Hindustan Republican Association was formed.

  • The leaders were: Ram Prasad Bismil, Sachindra Nath Sanyal and Yogesh Chatterjee.

    • Manifesto:

  • Armed revolution to overthrow colonial rule;

  • To establish federal republic of United States of India;

  • Voting on adult franchise basis;

    • Activities:

  • On 9th, August, 1925, they looted a train 8 Down. In this 4 persons were involved :-

    1. Ram Prasad Bismil;

    2. Roshan Lai;

    3. Asfaqullah;

    4. Rajendra Lahiri.

  • All the four were arrested but Chandra Shekhar Azad fled.

  • The train 8 Down was looted at Kakori, this is known as "Kakori Conspiracy"

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

  • This was founded on 10th September, 1928, under the leadership of Chandra Shekhar Azad.

  • It had following members:

    1. Vijay Kumar Sinha

    2. Shiv Verma

    3. Jaidev Kapoor

    4. Bhagwati Charan Vohra

    5. Bhagal Singh

    6. Sukhdev

    7. Battukeshwar Dutt -Objectives of HSRA:

  • To establish a socialist state in India.

  • To arouse consciousness among Indians to the futility of Gandhian method of nonviolence.

Works of HSRA

  • On 8th April, 1929, Bhagat Singh and Battukeshwar Dutt, threw a bomb in Central Legislative Council to protest against the Public Safety Bill and Trade Dispute Bill.

  • They dropped the copies of Red Pamphlet on the House Floor

  • They did not leave the Central Legislative Council and

  • they were arrested on 23rd March, 1931.

  • Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru and Sukhdev were hanged.

  • Bhagat Singh was executed because he was deliberately involved in the Saunders murder case.

  • This is known as Lahore Conspiracy Case

  • In Lahore Conspiracy Case, Jatin Das kept 64 days fast and he died on September 13, 1929.

  • A person called T.Macs-winey, he was from Ireland, also died in the same way.

  • On February, 27, 1931, Chandrashekhar shot himself dead in Alfred Park in Allahbad.

  • On December, 23, 1930, the governor of Punjab was injured by Harkishan and he was hanged.

  • On February, 1,1932, a bomb was placed on railway line on Hardinge Bridge in Delhi, but it did not damage the train.

Revolutionary Activities in Bengal

  • In Bengal the greatest revolutionary upsurge was Chittagaon Armoury raid.

  • In 1930, Surya Sen occupied two main Armouries and destroyed telegraph lines.

  • Surya Sen was arrested on 16th February, 1933

  • On January 12, 1934, he was hanged.

  • This organization had the following members:

    1. Ambika

    2. Kalapana

    3. Preetilata

    4. Loken Nath Pal

    5. Ganesh Ghosh

    6. Anant Singh

    7. Teghra Pal

    8. Somnath Pal

  • In 1924, Gopinath Shah was hanged for killing Day. Though, his target was police commissioner Charles Tegart.

  • In 1836, Bhang Bhasa Prakashika Sabha was formed.