Indian National Movement-Round Table Conferences, Communal Awards and Quit India Movement of 1942

Round Table Conferences

First Round Table Conference: (12th November, 1930 to 19th January, 1931)

  • Presided by -Ramsay MacDonald (head of Labour Party).

  • 89 total members participated in this, 16 members were from British Political Party;

  • 16 members from British Indian States : Sir Mirza Ismail; Sir Akbar Hydari; Maharaja of Bikaner; and 57 members from British India.

  • Congress did not participated.

Important leaders were

  • Lord Beel- Representative of Conservative Party; T.B. Sapru- Demanded an All India Federation (all the three RTCs). B.R. Ambedkar- demanded a separate community status for the depressed class. Md. Shafi; M.A. Jinnah; Fajhul Khan Dr Shafaat, Ahmed Khan

  • The conference was ad journal sine die on 19th January, 1993

  • Muslim delegation: Aga Khan; Jinnah Sahfi; Fajhul Haque

  • Sikh: Sardar Ujjal Singh

  • Hindu Mahasabha: Moonji; Raja Rajendra Nath

  • For dominion Status and constitution of India.

Recommendations of First RTC

  • I.C.S. and I.P.S. to be recruited by India.

  • Abolition of All India Service Examination for I.C.S. and I.P.S.

  • Indianisation of Army

  • Minister in NWFP

  • Separate of Burma from India and Sind from Bombay Presidency.

  • Extension of Franchise from 10 per cent – 25 per cent.

  • All India Federation

  • Federal government subject to reservation and responsible to federal legislature.

  • Provincial autonomy Problem faced:

  • BR Anjfredkar's demand for the separate depressed class.

  • M. Shafi, Fijhul Haque and Jinnah demanded the extension of representation Muslims

  • The absence of Congress meant marriage without the bride.

  • Absent of Congress members first led to efforts being made to include them in the second RTC

  • M. J. Jayekar and Tej Bahadur Sapru Played a prominent role.

  • On March, 1931: Gandhi-Irwin Pact

  • Politic Prisoners released

  • Civil Disobedience called off.

  • Developments of Gandhi-Irwin Pact:

  • On 26th February, 1931-26 members of RTC returned to India.

  • On 14th February, 1931-Gandhi wrote a letter to viceroy and receive the reply on 16th.

  • On 5th March, 1931- The Pact was signed.

Proposals of Gandhi: 31st Jan., 1930

  • 50% decrease in army and civil services cavalry.

  • Total prohibition of liquor.

  • Release of political prisoners.

  • Reforms in C.I.D.

  • Changes in Arms Act.

  • Lowering of Rupee and Sterling exchange ration.

  • Protection of textile industries.

  • Reservation of Coastal Shipping Association.

  • 50 per cent decrease in land-revenue.

  • Abolition of salt-tax.

  • Govt, salt monopoly.

Recommendations of Gandhi-Irwin Pact

  • Congress should be invited to participate in the discussion.

  • CDM to be discontinued.

  • Consultation with Federation was admitted as the essential basis.

  • Boycott no longer a political process.

  • Encouragement of Indian industries by propaganda was permitted.

  • Consumption of liquor would not be allowed beyond a limit fixed by law.

  • Police excess controlled.

  • Notification declaring illegal will be withdrawn.

  • Pending prosecution would be withdrawn, exceptions being: violent incident and offences.

  • Fines should be remitted

  • Movable property confiscated would be returned along with immovable property. Property sold to third

  • party would be regarded as discarded offence.

  • On 29th March, 1931: Congress session was convened at Karanchi under President Vallabhbhai Patel.

  • The demand of Puma Swaraj was emphasized and Gandhi-Irwin Pact was recognized.

  • Governor General was Willindon; Secretary of State was Samuel Hoarse.

Second RTC: September December 1931

  • Gandhi left India on 29th. August and reached London on 12th September to attend the second RTC.

  • On his way he was attended by Nahar Pasha of Egypt

  • The basic subject of discussion of second RTC was the federal structure and the minorities.

  • The completion of the structure of federal judiciary and federal legislature.

  • The distribution of financial resources between the centre and province.

  • The mode of the accession of states to the federation.

  • Gandhi left London on 6th December, and landed in Bombay on 28th December.

  • Important leaders: Ambedkar, Sapru, Jayekar, Partho, Sarojini Naidu, M.M. Malviya

  • Secretary of State was W. Benn

  • 31 new delegations (other than those in first RTC) were there.

Communal Awards

  • On 10th August, 1932.

  • Ramsay MacDonald announced separate declaration for depressed classes.

  • *In the Federal House of 250 members , 105 will be Hindus, 82 Muslims, 19 depressed class, 44 other groups.

  • Against this Gandhi went on fast on 20th September.

  • M.C. Raja, M.M. Malviya, Ambedkar activated and finally the Poona Pact was concluded on 25th September, 1932 in Bombay and the separate electorate for depressed class was abolished, as a reform the reserved seats for depressed classes increased from 71 to 147 in PLC and in CLC 18 per cent of the seats increased.

  • In 1933, Gandhi went on Harijan Yatra and remained there upto 29th July, 1934 (starting from Wardha on 7th November,1933V

Harijan Sevak Sangh

  • GD. Birla was the president; Amrit Lai Thakkar was the Secretary.

  • Based on the concept that India is not a nation but is based on various regional, racial and caste groups.

  • Gave recognition to (i) Muslims; (ii) Depressed Class; (iii) Backward Class; (iv) Indian Christians; (v) Anglo-Indians; (vi) Europeans; (vii) Commercial and Industrial Class; (viii) Landholders; (ix) Labourers; (x) Universities; (xi) Sikh.

Third RTC 17th November to 24th December, 1932

  • Congress boycotted.

  • Only 46 delegates attended the session.

  • Secretary of State was Samuel Hoare

  • Sapru appealed to the government that to remember that the constitution proposed to draft must be such as to be acceptable to the people of India.

  • Drew inspiration from: 1. Simon Commission Report; 2. Nehru Report; 3. RTCs; 4. White Paper; 5. Select Committee Report; 6. Lothian Report.

  • Features:

    • All India Federation

    • Responsible govt., with safeguards.

    • Separate representation of communal and other groups.

    • White Paper : of the conference was placed in the House of Commons in 1933.

    • It finally came out as Government of India Act, 1935.

Quit India Movement: 1942

  1. The immediate cause for the QIM was the failure of t5e~~Cripps Mission.

  2. The AICC made the following proposals:

    1. Peasantry should refuse to pay land tax and obstruct the revenue;

    2. No sale of food crops and cattle;

    3. Non-acceptance of paper money;

    4. Organization of Swaraj, Panchyats; and

    5. Roads, telegraphs and railways to be destroyed, so that the British army cannot work.

  3. On 8th August, .1942, at Gowlia Tank in Bombay, Gandhiji announced four things:

    1. "Forget the difference between hindu and Muslim and you are only Indians."

    2. "You are not fighting against British imperialism."

    3. "Feel that from today you are a free man and not dependent."

    4. "Do or die" - either free India or die in the attempt.

  4. On 9th August, 1942, Gandhiji and Sarojini Naidu were arrested and taken to Agha Khan Palace.

  5. On 9th August, 1942, the Congress was banned and all the prominent leaders of Congress, from all over India, were arrested.

  6. In order to placate the Congress the number of Council was increased from 12 to 15.

  7. The 15 executive members were: 1 viceroy; 4 hindus; 4 muslims; 1 European; 1 Dalit; 3 official members; 1 Sikh member.

  8. They also pressurised Gandhi to withdraw the movement.

  9. Gandhiji went on a self-purification fast on 10th February, 1943 and continued upto 3rd March, 1943,, to draw forceful attention of the outside world to the Indian problem.

  10. Three members resigned from the CLC. They were: Mody, Aney and Sarkar. Regional Variations

    1. Bombay:

      1. Aruna Asaf Ali hoisted the flag. 8 killed and 169 injured in this process.

      2. At Satara, government was established and was known as Patri Sarkar. Y.B. Chauhan and Nana Patel were its leaders.

      3. Some underground organizations were active and most important group was the Krantikari group.

    2. Berar and Central Province:

      1. At Ramtek, Surajmal Gupta, Baji Rao Basan, Hari Shiv Ram Avari, Shiv Lai Tej were important leaders.

      2. At Yoli (Amravati), -Punjab Rao Yaolikar was the main organizer.

      3. Asti- Ram Bai Tambi was the leader.

    3. Nilgiri and Thalcher:

      1. In Thalcher there was a parallel government known as Chasi Mauliya or Mazdoor Raj; Pabit Rai Baboo was its founder.

    4. South India:

      1. Tellicherry Congress con-spiracy-Balan got lOyrs. of rigorous imprisonment.

      2. Kezzar Bomb case- a lot of leaders were involved.

      3. Important leaders in the South were: K.B.Menon, B.K. Keshav Nair, C.P. Shankara Nair, Mathai-manpuram, N.A. Krishnan Nair.

    5. Delhi:

      1. 1.Important leaders were Aruna Asaf Ali, Jugal Kishore and C.Krishana Nair.

      2. North West Frontier Province:

      3. Abdus Samad Khan was the leader of Anjuman-i-Watan.

      4. In Peshawar Khudai khidmatgar continued to be active.

    6. Punjab:

      1. D. A. V. and Sanatan Dharm was active.

      2. Daya Singh was the leader.

    7. Bihar:

      1. Jay Prakash Narayan-and Ram Nandan Mishra were active,

      2. Madan Jha founded a parallel govt. which remained functional between 18th July,1942, to 3rd September, 1942, at Manhar in Sitamarhi.

      3. In Purnea, Lakshmi Narayan Singh was the important leader.

      4. Other important leaders were Kartik Prasad, Brij Kishore Singh, Dr. Vidhyanand Jha, Shayam-sunder Prasad.

      5. Parallel governments were also established in Manjhi, Ekma, Digwara, Daraouli, Raghun-athpur, Siwan, Parsa, Vaikunthpur.

      6. Bahera police station was attacked by Charitra Singh of Kharki.

      7. Sardar Nitynand Singh organised Azad Dastas.

      8. In Bhagalpur the leader was Siyaram Singh.

      9. In Karabara, Swatantra Mahcfa Seva Dal was organised by Jaglal Chaudhary.

    8. Bengal:

      1. The important papers which were suspended were Amrit Bazar Pafrika

      2. Yugantar, Vishwamitra, Matri Bhumi and Standard.

      3. In Midnapur, Tamralipti Jatiya Sarkar was established by Satish Chandra Samant between 17th December, 1942 and 1st September, 1944. He called himself The Sarvadhinayak. Thana Jatiya Sarkar was the highest governing body.

      4. 3.In Tamluk, Nandigram and Mahishdal, Vidyut Vahini or National

      5. Army was set up.

      6. 73 years, old Matangini Hazra was shot dead.

    9. United Provinces:

      1. In Sultanpur a parallel govt., was setup.

      2. In Baliya, Chitu Pandey founded a parallel government and called himself Swaraj TasDdar.

      3. Gazipur, Jaunpur and Benaras were important centres.

    10. Assam:

      1. Kaushal Kunwar, Mukund Kaoti and Kanaklata Baruah were hanged at Gohpur police station.

      2. Important leaders were Mohan Chaudhry, Motiram Bora, Mahendra Nath Hazarika, Shaukat Chandra Baruah and P.G Sharma.

      3. Anna Baruah organised the women of state.

      4. Behrampur near Naogaon, Ratna Phookan was shot dead.

      5. Shanti Sena was organised in villages.

    11. Orissa:

      1. In Balasore, Swaraj Panchyat was formed.

      2. A Congress leader, Lakshman Naik was murdered.

      3. Raksha Vahini was formed in Orissa.

All India Leadership

  • Achutya Pattvardhan, Aruna Asaf Ali , Ram Manohar Lohiya, Biju Patnaik, Chotu Bhai Puranik, Sucheta Kriplani, R.P.Goenka, Gopinath Bardoli and Sadik Ali were the important leaders.

  • A transmission was opened at Choupati with following members : Daya Bhai Patel, Vitthal Das K.Javeri, Usha Mehta, Chandrakant Javeri and Vitthal Dhar Babubhai.