Indian National Movement-Swadeshi Movement

Swadeshi Movement

The Swadeshi Movement had its genesis in the anti-partition movement which was started to oppose the British decision to partition Bengal.

Designs and Reaction

  • The Partition of Bengal in two parts:

    1. first part will be called Bengal, it will have territory of 1, 41, 580 sq.mi. with a population of 54.4 million;

    2. the second part will be called Eastern Bengal, with 1,06,540 sq. mi. territory with 31 million population.

  • Though Curzon claimed that the partition was designed to curb administrative difficulties, but the Indian Nationalists clearly saw the imperialist design of divide and rule behind it and condemned it unanimously.

  • Date of announcement of partition was July, 20,1905.

  • At that time viceroy was Lord Curzon.

  • He portioned for two reasons:

    1. administrative reasons: this was a fabricated reason. The British said that Bengal is a big province and it is too difficult to administer it. Therefore, for the administrative convenience it should be divided.

    2. but in reality, the division of Bengal was guided by imperialistic design

  • H.H. Risley, Home Seceratry, on Decemberl6, 1904. announced "Bengal United is a power, Bengal divided will pull in several ways."

  • Secretary of State gave his assent for partition on July 9th, 1905.

  • This information was flashed, in press on July 6th, 1905.

  • And on 20th July. , Curzon officially issued the order of partition.

  • Sanjivini was the first newspaper to announce the partition on July 6th. 1905.

  • This newspaper was started by K. K. Mitra.

The role of Press

  • A lot of newspapers played an active role during the Swadeshi Movement.

  • The prominent newspapers were:

  1. K. K. Mitra's Sanjivini (first to give the idea of boycott)

  2. S. N. Banerjee's Bengali (it warned the government that if die orders continues then the result would be fatal).

  3. Motila Ghqsh's Amrit Bazar Patrika.

  4. Brahm Bandhav Upadhyay's Sandhya (it was the most outspoken newspaper). Taken over by Mukhod Charan Samadhyay, after Upadhyay's death in 1907.

  5. Bipin Chandra Pal's Vande Mataram.

  6. Hitavadi published from Calcutta District.

  7. Yugantar edited by Barinder and Arbindo Ghosh.

  8. New India edited by Bipin Chandra Pal.

  9. Arbindo Ghosh's Vande Mataram-1907 (gave the concept of passive resistance)

Swadeshi and Congress

  • In 1905, in Benaras session of the Congress, Gopal Krishana Gokhalesupported the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements to Bengal only.

  • But they were against the all India extension of Swaraj, Boycott & Swadeshi Movements to all India level.

  • This led to the creation of two groups within the Congress - Moderates & Extremists. Role of Revolutionary Terrorism during the Boycott Movement: Association

    • Anusiian Committee: To paralyse the administration, 1902

  • Anusilan Samiti-

    • this was to develop bomb and disturb the nomialiife

  • Barinder Kumar Ghosh and Bhupinder kumar Ghosh

    • started in 1902, and banned in 1909

  • Abhinav Bharat Society 1902,

    • Continuity of Mitra Mela

  • Ganesh Sarvarkar,

    • HQ-Poona

  • Mitra Mela 1900.

    • to terrorise the British govt.

  • V. D. Sarvarkar,

    • HQ Mahar-ashtra

  • Swadeshi Bandhav Samiti

    • K. Dutt,

    • HQ-Barisal (Bakarganj)

  • Surhit Samiti

    • HQ-Mymen Singh District

  • Brati Samiti

    • HQ-Faridpur

  • SadhanaSamaj

    • HQ-Mymen Singh District

Role of Muslims

  • Liyakat Hussain was quite active in Patna. He organized the East Indian Railway strike and also organized a strike in Tuticorin Coral Mills.

  • Abdul Rassul was also quite active. He presided the Barisal Conference which was lathi charged.

  • Abdul Halim Gaznavi started Swadeshi industry in leather and led the boycott of foreign leather goods.

  • Saiyyad Haidar Reza was the leader of Swadeshi Movement in Delhi.

  • In K. K. Mitra's Anti Circular Society many Muslims assisted. They were: Abul Hussain; Liyakat Hussain; Didar Baksh; Abdul Gaffur.

  • Din Mohammad was another important leader.

  • Red Pamphlet and Krishak Bandhu were the propaganda literature published by Muslims.

Role of Poets:

  • Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's Anand Math played an instrumental role.

  • Mukund Das.

  • Rajni Kant Sen.

  • Rabindra Nath Tagore: he gave the concept of 'Atma Shakti'.

Effects of the Boycott:

  • In 1906, 22 per cent de-cline was registered in the import of cotton piece goods, 44 per cent in import of cotton twist yam, 11 per cent in salt, 55 per cent in cigarette and 68 per cent in shoes and boots.

Impact on Industry:

  • Chidambaram Pillai started Tuticorin Navigation Company.

  • The Swadeshi had profound impact on the Handloom Industry

  • The Swadeshi mood did bring about a significant revival in handloom, silk weaving, and some other tradition artisan crafts.

  • The Banga Lakshmi Cotton Mills was launched with much fanfare in August 1906 with equipment bought from an existing Serampore plant, and there were some fairly successfully ventures in porcelain (the Calcutta Pottery Works of 1906) chrome to tanning, soap, matches and cigarettes.

Impact on Education:

  • Indigenization of Indian school education.

  • In 1908, the school increased to: Secondary schools-25; Primary national schools-300.

  • \ 1° 1906, Aurobindo formulated National Education Policy.

  • Ranging from pleas for more technical training, through advocacy of the vernacular medium, what survived after a couple of years, was the Bengal National College, a Bengal Technical Institute set up by abreakway group with closer Moderate links, and perhaps die most significant- about a dozen national schools in West Bengal and Bihar and a considerably larger number in East Bengal districts.

Swadeshi outside Bengal:

  • Swadeshi movement spread in 23 districts of U.P, 15 districts in Central Province, 24 towns in Bombay Presidency, 20 districts of Punjab and 13 districts of Madras Presidency.

  • In Bombay the leaders were Bal Gangadhar Tilak and S. M. Paranjapey. They were editors of Kal.

  • Other leaders were: Ms. Kelkar (Tilak's daughter); Ms. A.V.Joshi; Vishnu Govind Bijapur; Mahadev Raja Ram Bhudas.

  • Tilak's newspaper Kesari's circulation earned Rs. 20,000 in 1907.

  • National school in Sonargaon (near Dhaka).

In Punjab

  • Prominent leaders were: Ram Ganga Ram; Pt. Chandrika Dutt (Arya Samaj); Munshi Ram (later known as Swami Sardanand); Lala Lajpat Rai; Lala Hansraj.

  • Lala Lajpat Rai and Lala Hansraj started a newspaper in 1904 - Punjabi.

  • Harkishan Lai started Tribune.

In Madras

  • Important leaders:

  • Subramanya Aiyar; P.Anand Charlu; T.M.Nair; T.Prakasam and Krishna Rao.

  • T.Prakasam and Krishna Rao started a newspaper Kistnapatrika (from Masulipatnam).

  • Subramanya Aiyar visited Madras in 1906-07.

  • In 1906, Chidambaram Pillai started the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company.

  • Andhra Mahasabha was founded by Prakasham Kondavenkatapayya.

  • Another prominent leader was Pattabhi Sitaramayya.

In Bombay

  • In 1905, Swadeshi Vastu Prachrini Sabha was founded.

  • A prominent trade unionist was N. M. Lokhanday, who was from Satyasodhak

  • Samaj.

In United Province

  • In Allahbad, Nagari Pracharini Sabha was founded. Its members were: Madan Mohan Malaviya and Moti Lai Nehru.

  • In Nainital Industrial Conference was founded. Its members were: M. M.Malaviya and Chintamani.

  • In Benaras, Sundar Lai was die prominent leader.

  • In 1907, Feroz Shah Mehta transferred the Congress session from Nagpur to Surat.

Role of laborers during Swadeshi Movement

  • Important leaders: A. C. Banerjee; P.K.Ray Chaudhary; Apoorva Kumar Ghosh; Prematosh Bose.

  • In 1905,297 clerks staged strikes in Burn Company.

  • On October 21,1905, the painters union was formed in Calcutta (first union of India).

  • In July, 1906, Railway Men's Union was formed in Asansol, Raniganj and Jamalpur.

  • In 1906, Indian Mill Hands Union was formed by Ashwini Kumar Banerjee in Budge Budge (Bengal).

Suppression of the movement

  1. Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai went into self-imposed exile.

  2. Aurobindo Ghosh escaped to Pondicherry.

  3. Tilak was sent to Mandley.

  4. Paranjapey was imprisoned for 19 months.

  5. Chidambram Pillai and Harish Sarvo Hamma Rao were imprisoned.

  6. The government made a lot of Repressive Acts:

    1. Prevention of Seditious Meeting Act, 1907.

    2. District Magistrate and Superintendent of Police were given die powers to dismiss the meetings.

    3. Explosive Substance Act, 1908.

    4. Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1908.

    5. Special tribunal of 3 judges of High Court was instituted.

    6. The Act gave powers to the govt., to declare an association unlawful.

    7. Newspaper (incitement and offences) Act, 1908.

    8. It banned seditious Articles.

    9. The Press Act, 1910.

    10. Defence of India Act, 1915.

Home Rule League

  • In order to transform Congress, from a deliberative body to an organized body, agitational work had therefore to be organized through die two Home Rule Leagues of Tilak and Annie Besant.

  • In early 1915, Annie Besant launched a campaign through her papers, New India and Commonwealm. and organized public meetings and conferences to demand mat India be granted self government on the lines of the white colonies after the war.

  • In the annual session of Congress in December 1915 it was decided that die Extremist be allowed to rejoin the Congress. The opposition from moderates was attenuated by the death of Pherozshah Mehta.

  • But Annie Besant did not succeed in getting die Congress and Muslim League to support her decision to set up Home Rule League.

  • She, however did manage, to persuade die Congress to commit itself to a programme of educative propaganda and revival of die local level Congress committees.

  • Knowing that the Congress, as constituted at the time, was unlikely to implement this, she had inserted a condition by which, if die Congress did not start this activity by September 1916, she would be free to set up her own League.

  • Tilak, not bound by any such commitment, and having gained the right to read-mission, now took me lead and setup the Home Rule League at die Bombay Provincial Conference held at Belgaum in April 1916.

  • In 1916, Annie Besant announced the formation of her Home Rule League, with George Arundale.

  • Home Rule League: Tilak - Maharashtra, Karnataka (excluding Bombay city), the Central Provinces and Berar.

  • Home Rule League: Annie Besant: Rest of India;

  • Tilak claimed a membership of 14,000 in April 1917 and 32,000 by early 1918.

  • The League was organized into six branches , one each in Central Maharashtra, Bombay city, Karnataka, and Central Provinces, and two in Berar.

  • The Adyar (Madras) headquarters of Besant's League maintained loose supervision over its 200 odd local branches (132 of diem in Madras Presidency). At its height in mid-1917, die Besant Home Rule League had 27,000 members.

  • Many moderate Congressmen, who were dissatisfied with the inactivity into which the Congress had lapsed, joined Home Rule agitation.

  • The Lucknow session provided opportunity to Home Rule League to demonstrate their strength. Tilak and his men were welcomed back into die Congress by die Moderate president, Ambika Charan Mazumar and, bom Congress and league were together against the wishes of leaders like M.M. Malviya.

Home Rule

League Outside India

  • The Home Rule League was also started in Canada and Australia and Indian Home Rule League was also established in New York.

  • In July, 1918, a monthly journal called Young India was published.

  • Lala Lajpat Rai, N.S. Hardikar and K.D. Shastri visited America.

  • A branch of Home Rule League was started in San Francisco.

  • Between 9th Febru-ary,1919 and 6th May, 1919, Tilak toured different places in America for a period of 86 days, in which he cocovered 20 states of the U.S.A, gave 83 popular addresses and arranged 25 meetings.

  • The govt., resorted to repression. Annie Besant was arrested.

Rowlatt Act

  • In 1917, a Rowlatt Committee was formed, under Justice Rowlatt, judge of the King's Bench Division of His Majesty's High Court of Justice, as the President and Sir Basil Scott (Chief Justice of Bombay), Sir Verney Lovett (member of Revenue Board, U.P.), C.V. Kurnara-swami Shastri (Judge of Madras High Court) and Mr. Probhash Chandra Mitter (Vakil of Calcutta High Court) as the members.

  • This committee was formed with an objective to curb the revolutionary activities.

  • The Rowlatt Act was produced on 6th February, 1919.

  • Rowlatt Committee, also called the Sedition Commit-tee submitted it's report in April 1918.

  • On the basis of the recommendations of the committee, the Government of India framed two bills. –Recommendations of the 2nd BUI:

    1. it sought to curtail the liberty of people:

    2. it provided for speedy trial of offences by a special court consisting of three High Court Judges;

    3. there was to be no appeal;

    4. the provincial govt., could order any person, on suspicion, "to furnish security ought to notify his residence, or to reside in a particular area or to abstain from any specified Act, or finally to report himself to the police":

    5. the provincial government had powers to search a place and arrest a suspected person without warrant;

    6. There was a provision for an Investigation committee of 3 persons appointed by provincial government, before whom the accused could appear and offer an explanation but could not engage a lawyer.

  • Thus in nutshell this Act suspended the right of Haebeus Corpus.

  • Gandhiji organized Satya-grahon 14th February, 1919.

  • On 21st March, 19T9jthe Viceroy- Chelmsford gave consent to the Act.

  • On 8th April, 1919, Gandhiji was arrested.

  • The British P.M, Disraelli, said that "The Rowlatt Act is a preventive murder".