Post Mauryas-Kanvas, Indo-Greeks and Satraps

Sungas

Centre: Videha (M.P)

  1. Pusyamitra Sunga:

    1. Founder: Pusyamitra Sunga in 180B.Cor 184 B.C or 187 B.C

    2. He was C-in-C and killed the last Mauryan King Brahadatta.

    3. He belonged to Bhardwaj family of Brahmanas.

    4. Faced successfully the Bacterian attack and protected Aryabharta, according to Gargi Samhita.

    5. He performed many sacrifices, (according to Mahabhasya), it was done in the quest of Digavijya.

    6. According to the Ayodhya inscriptions of Dhanadeva, Pusymitra is credited with the performance of two horse sacrifices.

    7. It has been told that he destroyed 84,000 stupas built by Asoka, but the archaeological remains indicate that the famous Barhut Stupa was built during the Sungas.

    8. According to Divyadana and Taranath, he went to destroy a great monastery known as Kakkutarama, but returned back.

    9. His Grandson was Vasumitra, who fought against the Greeks.

    10. He also fought against Vidharbha and Kalinga.

  2. Agnimitra:

    1. Succeeded Pusymitra Sunga in 148 B.C

    2. His descriptions are found in Kalidasa's drama Malavi-kagnimitra.

    3. In this he has been referred as Raja.

  3. Sujyeshtha:

    1. Succeeded Agnimitra, he ruled for seven years.

  4. Surnitra:

    1. He was succeeded by Surnitra in 133 B;C,

    2. According to Bana, he was mudered by Muladeva, and Muladeva founded a new independent principality of Kosala

  5. Vajramitra:

    1. He succeeded in 123 B.C

    2. Although, there is a controversy regarding it: it has also been said thatAndhraka succeeded Surnitra.

  6. Bhagavata:

    1. He succeeded in Vajramitra in 114 B.C

  7. Ghosha

  8. Vasumitra:

    1. The Besanagar Pillar informs that Greek king Heliodorous sent his ambassador to the king Bhagabhadra.

  9. Devabhuti;

    1. Succeeded in 82 B.C

    2. According to Puranas, Devabhuti was the 10th and the last king of the Sunga dynasty. Vasudeva was minister of Devabhumi. Devabhumi was murdered on the instructions of Vasudeva.

Kanvas

  1. Vasudeva;

    1. Founded by Vasudeva in 73 B.C

    2. He ruled for nine years between 72-63 A.D

  2. Bhumimitira:

    1. He ruled between 63 and 49 B.C

  3. Narayana:

    1. He ruled between 49 and 37 B.C

  4. Susaraman:

    1. According to Puranas, there were as many as 4 kings who ruled for 45 years.

    2. Finally, in 28 B.C, Andhras defeated Kanvas.

Indo-Greeks

  1. Bacteria

  2. Parthians

Bacterians in India:

  1. Demetrius:

    1. Attacked India (in Greek sources). He has been referred as the 'King of die Indians'

    2. In a commentary on Patanjali, Demetrius has been probably mentioned as Dattamitra.

    3. Eucratides, is described by Justin, as a leader who organised rebellion against Demetrius.

    4. Demetrius issued silver coins; his principal coin device was Heracles.

  2. Eucratides

  3. Heliocles

Real Indo-Greeks

  1. Apollodotus

  2. Heliodors:

    1. He has referred himself as Paramabhagvata.

    2. He erected a Pillar called Besanagar Pillar or Garuda Pillar in which Krishna has been mentioned as Herakles.

  3. Menander:

    1. His capital was Sakala (modern Sialkot).

    2. Dharmachakra has been depicted on his coins.

    3. The Pali work Milinda-panha (Questions of Milinda); composed by Nagasena who converted him into Buddhism.

    4. Accoding to Milinda-panha, he was born in Alasanda

    5. He issued Gold coins, distributed over a wide area extending from Kabul to Mathura. Most of his coins are in silver and copper.

    6. His most famous coins are Athene Promachus

Parthians

  1. Mithridates I, originally came from Iran, reached up to Indus.

  2. Maues : founded his Empire in Punjab, which comprised of Gandhara and Kapisa

  3. He was succeeded by Azes I and then Azes U

  4. Azes II was succeeded by Gondophares

  5. He is not only known from his coins, but also from a very interesting Kharosthi epigraph and from the apocryphal legend of Saint Thomas.

  6. The only Kharosthi epigraph in which he is mentioned is usually described as originating from Takht-i-Bahi, a few miles to the west of Mardan among the Yusufzai.

  7. He described himself in most of his coins as Devavrata: devoted to deva.

  8. He was succeeded by Abdagases.

Satraps of Northern and Western India

  1. The Achaemenid conquerors of Northern and North-Western India were the first to introduce into the country the satrapal system of government.

  2. The term 'Satrap' is the Hellenised form of the Old Persian Kshathra-pavan (meaning protector of the realm) Indianised into Kshatrapa.

  3. The satraps were divided into a number of Principalities:

  4. Chukhsa:

    1. Chukhsa was ruled by Liaka Kusuluka, his son was Patika, who adopted title Mahadandapati.

  5. Satraps of Mathura :

    1. Most of the Kshatrapas and Mahakshatrapas of Mathura were Saka by race, issued their coins and epigraphs in Kharoshthi and Brahmi script.

    2. Their coins depicted 'standing Lakshmi and "Three Elephants' and they adopted titles like:

    3. Rajna Balabhutisa,

    4. Rajana Ramadatasa,

    5. Rajana Kamdatasa.

    6. Important rulers were:

      1. Mahakshatarapa Rajuvula,

      2. Sodasa,

      3. Kshatrapa Sivadatta,

      4. Kshatrapa Sivagosha,

      5. Kshatrapa Hagamasha.

    7. The informations are mainly given by Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions.

  6. Kshaharata Dynasty: Western India:

    1. The first satrap of the Kshaharata family in Western India appears to have been one Bhumaka.

    2. The coin are mainly depicted Dharmachakra and Lion capital'.

    3. The title Mahakshatrapa was first used by Nanapana on his coins, successor of Bhumika, mentioned in Periplus of the Erythrean Sea (written by an unknown author).

  7. Satraps of Ujjaini Chashtana:

    1. Probably after the death of Nanapana, Chastana, the son of Yasomatika, was authorized by the central power to recover the lost satrapal possessions.

    2. Chastana won the Battle against the Satavahanas.

    3. The next important was Jayadaman.

    4. But the most important was Rudradaman. He is known to have defeated Satakarni Lord of Deccan or Dakshanapatha Swami, according to his Junagarh inscriptions of 150 A.D, it was the first Sanskrit inscription.

    5. According to Kanheri Inscription: Rudradaman's daughter was queen of Vasishthiputra Pulumayi.

    6. The Junagarh inscription indicate that Rudradaman repaired the Sudarsana Lake, which had burst during a violent storm.

    7. Rudradaman's rule extended.

    8. Eastern and Western Malwa, Uppei Narmada, Mahismati (modern Mandhata), Gulf of Cambay and Kathiawar, Northern Gujarat, Marwar in Rajasthan, Kuchchh, Nishada, Sind.

    9. He issued mainly silver coins.

    10. He had two sons; Damaghisada and Rudrasimha, and one daughter who was married to a Satavahana prince.

    11. According to Amravati inscriptions Sivaskanda Satakarni defeated him.

    12. He had complete knowledge of Grammar.

    13. Damaghsada: He succeeded him, known as Dahajadasri.

    14. Rudrasimha I: He ruled from Ujjaini.

    15. According to Brahmi inscriptions: Queen Prabhudama was his sister.