Religion of India-Mahayana and Trikaya

Mahayana: Great Vehicle

  • When the Buddha died, according to orthodox theory, the chain of his existence was broken.

  • He finally entered the Nirvana which he had realized at his enlightenment and ceased to be an individual.

  • But soon after his death, his followers evolved thee Three Jewels, which forms the basic profession of faith of Buddhism.

  • The Jataka stories show that Bodhisattavas can be incarnated as men or even as animals.

  • According to the older doctrine of the Bodhisattavas works in wisdom and love through many lives so that he may become a Buddha.

  • Therefore, anybody, having the qualities of Buddha can become Buddha.

  • The idea of transference of merit is a special feature of the teaching of the Great Vehicle.

  • The suffering of Bodhisattavas closely resembles the Christianity conception of God; it seems that they were influenced by the Christianity which was prevalent in Persia.

  • The Universe of the Great Vehicle contains a number of Bodhisattavas, chief of whom, is

  1. Avalokitesvara (The Lord who Looks Down) also called Pandmapani (The Lotus Bearer)

  2. Manjusri which naked sword in the one hand and the book on the other hand with ten Paramittas :

    1. Charity (Dana),

    2. Good Conduct (Sila),

    3. Forbearance (Ksanti),

    4. Courage (Virya),

    5. Meditation (Dhyana),

    6. Insight (Prajna),

    7. To achieve salvation (Upayakausalya),

    8. Resolu¬tion (Pranidhana),

    9. Power (Bala),

    10. Knowledge (Jnana)

  1. Vajrapani : a sterner Buddha, against sin, like Indra , bears Thunderbolt in his hand

  2. Maitreya : future Buddha

  3. Kisthigrabha : Guardian of Purgatories

  4. Ambitabh (Immeasurable God) Presiding over Sukhvati (Highest Mahayana Heaven) called Ambitabh or Amitayus, Father of Heaven

Trikaya:

  • Dharmakaya : Bodies of Essence - permeated the universe

  • Sambhogakaya : Body of Bliss

  • Nirmankaya : Created Body or Rupaka The Body of Essence is sometimes referred as Adhi Buddha, the Primeaval also described as the void (Sunya), the true (Tattva), Wisdom (Bodhi), The Womb of those who attain the Goal (Tathagatgarbha).

The Vehicle of Thunderbolt:

  • Vajrayana or Sahajana or Sahajiyas or Mantravana Importance given by Yogacara school

  • Prajnapratima : the faminine divinities in Mahayana

  • It is also called Kalachakrayana (10th AD)

  • The Vjrayana ideas were developed and codified under the Pala King

  • Thunderbolt can be best attained by acquiring magical power Finally, Buddhas and Boddhisattavas were endowed with wives (Sakti)

Guddha and Their Wives
Table showing Buddha and their corresponding wife

Buddha

Wives

Adhi Buddha

Sakti

Buddha

Tara

Aksebhoya

Arya Tara

Ratnasambhava

Lochana

Amitabh

Mamaka

Amoghasiddhi

Pandara

Vairochana

Vajradhatvishvari

The Vajra is divided into two parts : Prajna and Upaya

Philosophy:

  • Tara is the chief Goddess.

  • It believes that the deities should be compelled, rather than persuaded, by means of Sadhana (dedication, surrender).

  • The Vajrayana texts are composed of Tantras composed of two parts : Mantra and Yantra (Magi¬cal symbols).

  • The concept of Yuganadha is associated with it.

  • It believes in six syallbus SADAKASARA.

  • The concept of Shakta has been mentioned in

  1. Periplus,

  2. Gandhar Stone Inscriptions of KumaraGupta,

  3. Brihat Samhita

Tibetan Lists:

Table of Visitors, King and the Year of Visit
Table of visitor with the king they visited and corresponding year.

Visitors

King

Period

Matrechta

Kanishka

1st AD

Nagarjuna

Udayibhadra

2nd AD

Chandragomin

Viraratnakriti

6th AD

Jinatri

Chittratnausodhankarma

11th AD

Bodhibhadra

Gurulekha

11th AD

Sajjana

Suksmajnana

11th AD

Dipankara

Nyayapala

11th AD

Srijana Jaganmitra

Nanda Jayachandra

12th AD

Buddhist Order: Membership: Sangha

Not restricted by caste; but soldiers and debtors could enter with permission; Novicees might be admitted from the age of 8

Rules of admission

  1. three yellow robes;

  2. shaving of head;

  3. Pronunciation of the three jewels;

  4. Ten percepts;

  5. Fortnight : monks assembly for Upavasatha: act of general confession.

Ten Percepts:

  1. not to harm;

  2. not to take, what is not given;

  3. evil behavior;

  4. false speech;

  5. alcoholic drink;

  6. eating at forbidden time;

  7. dancing, singing, music;

  8. garlands, per¬fumes, jewellery;

  9. High or broad bed;

  10. receiving gold and silver.

Symbolism

Symbols and Their Meaning
Table of religious symbols and their meaning

Symbolism

Meaning

Lotus and Bull

birth

Horse

marriage and birth of a son

The Bodhi Tree

Great Renunciation Wheel Dharmchakaras containing 4noble path and 8 fold path enlightenment

The Stupa

death

Marked by Rumrnmmendesi

Pillar of Ashoka birth

Birth + Enlightenment

Vaishakha Purnima

Miscellaneous

  • Harsha like Ashoka tried to bring thee Buddhist Sangha into the secret discipline.

  • Chaitya is the prayer Hall; Sarnath is the earliest stupa to be found; relics of Buddha associated in the construction of the earliest stupas; Chaityas religious term/ Stupa- architectural term