Religion of India-Vardhamana Mahavira

Vardhamana Mahavira 540 BC- 468 BC

  • Born: 540 BC

  • Place of birth- Kundagram near Vaishali- Vill- Basarh

  • Father- Siddhartha, Chief of Jnatri Kshatriya clan;

  • Mother- Trishala, Licchchhavi provinces

  • Brother- Nandivardlian

  • Renunciation : abandon the world at the age of 30; ascetic Group called Nirgranthrs- (Free From Bonds)

  • kept on wandering for 12 years;

  • maximum stay in a village- 5hrs.-1 day

  • maximum stay in a town-5 lays


  • Kaivalya-Jnana and abandoned them near Parsavanath Hills altogether when he attained perfect knowledge;

  • propagated for 30 years;

  • visited Kosala, Magadha, Mithila, Champa;

  • received under salatree on the bank of the river Rijupalika near the village


  • died at the of 72 at Pavapuri in Rajgir in 468 B.C., according to Hemachandra.

  • Jemeli- first disciple of Mahavira, subsequently the first leader of Jaina schism; Patronage: Chandra Gupta Maurya / Karavela of Kalinga and Chalukya Shiddharaja Hemachandra

  • great Jaina scholar 1088 AD

  • Devachandra was his guru appointed under Jayasimha Siddharaja (Chalukyan)


  • They don't believed in creator, but emphasized on the existence of the perfected souls.

  • They believed in ANEKANTAVADA The reality has indefinite number of aspects and attributes.

  • Syadavada: also known as Saptabhandi, accepts it, no absolute and final affirmation of denial is possible because knowledge is a relative quality.

  • Derived its metaphyscial thoughts form the Samakhya School.

  • Varna: unlike Buddhism, believes in rebirth and recognizes Varna.

  • Believed in Jiva and Ajiva:

    • The world consists of two eternal, uncreated, co-existing but independent categories.

    • It is the most scientific concept of Jainism. Jiva is conscious power, but embarrassed with limitations of materialism and corresponds to soul.

    • Ajiva is unconscious like, matter, space, motion, and rest time.

    • The most important aspect which distinguishes Jiva and Ajiva is the Knowledge.

  • Knowledge : Mati : Sense Perception Sruti : Intelligible Symbols Avadhi: Supermandane: Supernormal means Mahaprayaya: Telepathy KevalaJnana: Knowledge of perfected soul

  • Material : Jiva, Puddgal, Dharma, Akash, and Kal

    Panch Anuvrata :

    1. Non violence, i.e, Ahimsa

    2. Speak the truth, i.e, Satya

    3. commit no theft, i.e Asteya,

    4. Celebacy , i.e, Brahmacharya, Mahavira only introduced this, rest four was already existing

    5. Non-possession (Aparigraha)

  • Tattavas : Aasrava : the flow of subjects, Sanwara : to stop the flow of subjects into the soul, Nirjara : to destroy the subjects, Bandha and Siddha.

  • Jainism believed in three aspects : Spad-veda, Sapta-bhangi, and Nyaydeva.

  • The followers of Jainism is called NTRGRANTHAS.


  • Jitendra : Conquered the senses

  • Nirgranthi: Free from fetters

  • Jina: the conqueror

  • Arhant: Worthy or Perfect

Jaina Sect:

  • Due to the wearing cloths, a division took place in thee Jainism : Svetambara and Digambara

  1. Svetamvara, founded by Sthulbahu.

  2. Digambara, also known as Manatunganota, founded by Bhadrabahu

Jaina Council:

  1. First Council" Patallputra 3rd BC:

    • This council is known council of Elders, convened by Sthulabahu. Compiled 12 Angas which replaced 14 Purvas (Mahavira's Teachings), teachings received by Sthulabhadra at the feet of Guru Sambutavijya, which was rejected by the Digambaras.

  2. Second Council: Valabhi: 5thAD Leadership: Devardhi Ksharnasrama Decision :

  • Finally Svetambaras 12 Angas reorganized and one was lost and added in the form of 12 Upangas, written down in Ardha-Magadhi language. Digambaras further divided into Samaiyas and Svetambaras divided into Therapanthis (who renounced idol worship and believed in scriptures, strict disciplinary laws.

Important Followers:

  • Gangas,

  • Kadambas,

  • Chalukyas, and Rashtraku-tas: patronized Jainism.

  • Jinasena and Gunabhadra composed Mahapurana King Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakutas - a Jaina wrote Ratnamalika Ganga ruler Nitimarga In Kanchi,

  • Samantabhadra Kalpa Sutra - most important treatise.