Dual System of Government and Anglo Sikh Wars

Dual system of Government

  • After the Battle of Buxar, the Bengal underwent into a system of Dual government in 1765. Clive introduced this system. The Company acquired both Diwani (fiscal) and Nizamat (legal) rights.

  • The Empror Shah Alam II gave them Diwani rights by treaty of Allahabad and Nizam-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal surrendered the Nizamat rights after the defeat at Buxar.

  • However the company did not take over direct administration and revenue collection. As a result the company abstained itself from taking any responsibility. Warren Hasting ended the Dual system in 1772.

The conquest over Mysore

  • Mysore was one of the state which gave very tough resistance to the British power.

  • Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan carried the series of battles against the expansion of British power.

  • Mysore was one of the state which realized the importance of foreign relations and tried to form a alliance against the British.

Haidar Ali: 1761-82

  • Haider Ali was born in a poor family.

  • Haidar Ali began his carrer as a soldier in the service of the Mysore state, later he became the faujdar of Dindigul.

  • He established a modern arsnel in Dindigul with the help of French.

  • In 1759, he defended the capital of Mysore, Seringapatnam against Marathas.

  • In 1761, he overthrew Nanjarajar (the powerful Prime Minister of Wodeyar king Krishraja I) and usurped power, though continuing to recognize Krishnraja I as the lawful ruler.

  • He checked the power of Poligars, the zamindars of Mysore. Haider Ali was defeated by Maratha in 1764, 1766 and 1771.

First Anglo-Mysore War (1766-69)

  • Haider Ali defeated the British.

  • The Treaty of Madras (1769) was signed based on mutual restoration of each other’s territory.

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84): The outbreak of the American War of Independence caused Warren Hastings to attack French port Mahe, which was in Haidar Ali’s territory. Haider Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Maratha and captured Arcot (Capital of Carnatic State). In 1781, Haidar Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyrecoot. In 1782 Haider Ali defeated Captian Braithwate. Haider Ali died during the 2nd Anglo-Mysore war.

Tipu Sultan

Haidar Ali was succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan in 1782.He continued the Second Anglo-Mysore war till 1784. The Treaty of Mangalore (1784) was signed by Tipu Sultan which ended the Second Anglo-Mysore war.

Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-92) Cornwallis began the war as an ally of the Raja of Travancore. Maratha and Nizam aided the British, Cornwallis captured Bangalore in 1791. The Treaty of Seringapatnam (1792) was signed as a result of that Tipu ceded half of his territory and had to pay heavy war indemnity.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1799): Tipu entered into negotiations with Revolutionary France and send diplomatic mission to Arabia, Afghanistan and Turkey to forge an anti British front. Tipu planted a ‘tree of liberty’ at his capital Seringapatnam and became a member of Jacobian Club. Lord Welslley attacked Mysore and Tipu was killed defending Seringapatnam.

Anglo-Maratha wars

First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82): Favoring the cause of Raghunath Rao (Raghoba) for Peshwaship, English (Hastings) came in conflict with the Marathas. On being defeated, the British had to sign the humiliating Convention of Wadgaon (1779). British later signed Treaty of Salbai (1782), renouncing the cause of Raghoba.

Second Anglo-Maratha war (1803-06): The Maratha Peshwa signed the Subsidiary Alliance Treaty of Bassein (1802). The Maratha confederacy, which did not like the idea challenged the British power but were defeated by the British.

Third Anglo-Maratha war (1817-18): Lord Hastings was determined to proclaim British paramountcy in India. Hastings moves against Pindaris which questioned the sovereignty of the Maratha chiefs and the war began. The Marathas were decisively defeated.

Anglo Sikh wars

After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh power got weakened.

First Anglo-Sikh war (1845-46): Sikhs were defeated in all the four battles at Mudki, Ferozshah, Aliwal and Sobraon. The Treaty of Lahore (1846) ended the war. Sir Henry Lawrence became the first resident.

Second Anglo-Sikh war (1848-49): Dalhousie annexed Punjab. Sir John Lawrence became the first chief commissioner of Punjab.