Revolt of 1857

Revolt of 1857

  • On Sunday, 29 March, it was reported to Lieutenant Baugh, Adjutant of the 34th N.L that a sepoy, named Mangal Pandey, had turned out.

  • The first to rise was a detachment of sepoys at Aligarhon May 20, if 57 This was followed by mutinies in the Punjab, at Naushera, on May 21, and Hoti Marden during the next two or three days..

Causes:

  • Lord Dalhousie's Doctrine of Lapse.

  • Under this Dalhousie annexed:

    Dlhousie Annexed Cities
    Cities annexed by Dalhousie and the corresponding year

    Satara

    1848

    Jaitpur

    1849

    Sambhalpur

    1849

    Punjab

    1849

    Sikkim

    1850

    Bharatpur

    1850

    Udaipur

    1852

    Pegu (Burma)

    1852

    Jhansi

    1853

    Nagpur

    1845

    Awadh

    1856

  • Abolition of titles and pensions

  • Discrimination in payment and promotions with Indian sepoys

  • Religious objections by sepoys.

  • According to Hindu customs and traditions crossing the sea meant losing caste.

  • Activities of christian missionories led to the resentment of the conservative section of society.

  • British intervention in Hindu customs and laws also invited protest as in case of AMlition of gati (1829), widow remarriage act (1856), etc.

  • British economic policies which led to the deindus-trialisation of traditional industries in India were a factor of discontent among village artisans and craftsmen.

  • Harsh revenue settlements made peasants deprived of basic ammenitues and left, them with no other choice but to stand against the oppressors.

  • However, introduction of the new Enfield rifle with greased cartridges (had to be bitten before loading it into rifle) caused disstisfaction among sepoys, as they thought that the Britishers conspire to pollute them and to make them lose their religion.

  • On March 29, 1857, the Indian sepoys of 34th N.I Stationed at Barrackpur, Bengal refused to use the new cartridges, Mangal Pandey" of sepoys attacked and" killed the British adjutant.

  • The sepoys of 3rd Cavalry at Meerut, on 10th May 1857 refused to use the greased cartridges and revolted.

  • They marched to Delhi, and were accompanied by 11th and 20th Native Infantries and declared Bahadur Shah Zafar as the Emperor of India on May 11, 1857.

Map of India During 1857 Revolt

India During 1857 Revolt

Map of India During 1857 Revolt

Spread

  • Mutinies also took place at:

    • Mathura

    • Lucknow

    • Bareilly

    • Shajahanpur

    • Kanpur

    • Benaras

    • Jhansi

    • Allahabad

Centers and Leadership

Centers of Power and Leadership
Centers of power and corresponding leaders during 1857 revolt

Delhi

Bahadur Shah II

Jawan Bakht

Prince Mirza

Mirza Khan

Bakht Khan

Kanpur

Nana Saheb

Rao Shaib

Azimullah Khan

Tantia Tope

Lucknow

Begum Hazrat

Mahal

Ahmadullah

Jhansi

Rani Lakshmi Bai

Tantia Tope

Bareilly

Khan BahadurKhan

Arrah

Kunwar Singh

Faizabad

Maulvi

Ahmadulla

Farrukhabad

Tufzal Hasan Khan

Bijnaur

Mohammad Khan

  • Muradabad Abdul Ali Khan Allahabad & Benaras Liaqat Ali

Suppression

  • Delhi- Nicholson, Hudson

  • Kanpur- Campbell

  • Lucknow- Campbell

  • Jhansi - Hugh Rose

  • Allahabad & Neil

  • Benaras Col.

  • Arrah William Taylor Vincent Eyre

Who did not participate ?

  • Gulab Singh of Kashmir

  • Salar Jung of Hyderabad

  • Jung Bahadur of Nepal

  • Begum of Bhopal

  • Sikhs

  • Dipankar Rao (Scindia's Minister)

  • Indian intellegentia class.

Nature:

  1. Disraeli: National Revolt

  2. Ellenborough: Legitimate War;

  3. Justin McCarthy: a combination of military grievances, national hatred and religious fanaticism;

  4. Charles Ball: the rebellion of whole people.

  5. Fonvielle: all class rebellion;

  6. Major Harriott: a conspiracy but had its ramifications throughout the palace and city; (7) Vincent Smith: discontent manifested through sepoys;

  7. Canning: rebellion by Brahmans on religious pretences;

  8. PC Joshi: The source spring of the national movement;

  9. Ashok Mehta: "the rebellion of 1857 was more than a mere sepoy mutiny nd eruption."

Important Books:

  1. History of the Indian Mutiny: T R Holmes

  2. A History of the Sepoy in India: J W Kaye

  3. Indian Mutiny of 1857: G B Malleson.

  4. 1857: S N Sen

  5. The Sepoy Revolt -its causes and consequences: H Mead.

  6. Indian first war of inde-pendence: Vir Savarkar