18th & 19th Century Socio-Religious Movement in India-Censorship, Licensing Regulation, Registration, Newspaper & Press Regulation

Reaction: 1799 - Censorship Act: By Lord Wellesley

Provisions

  • Every newspaper should print the names of printer, editor and proprietor.

  • Before printing any material it should be submitted to the Secretary of Censorship.

  • This act was abolished by Hastings.

1823 - Licensing Regulation Act: By John Adam

Features

  • Every publisher should get a license from the government, defaulters would be fined Rs. 400/- and the press will be ceased by the government.

  • Government has right to cancel the license.

  • Charles Metcalf abolished the act.

  • He is therefore called "Liberator of Indian Press"

1853 - Licensing Act

  • Govt, can prohibit, cancel any press.

1867- Registration Act

  • Any journal should be registered.

  • Names of staffs to be given in detail.

  • One copy to the govt.

1878- Vernacular Press Act IX

Objective:

  • Vernacular press severely criticised racial British rule. Therefore, there was a threat for the rise of nationalism. Provisions:

  • Magistrates were authorised to ask any publisher of newspaper to give assurance of not publishing anything threatening peace and security.

  • Fixed amount to be paid for security guarantee.

  • The magistrate's decision was final in any dispute.

  • Not applicable to English Press.

  • Repealed by Lord Ripon in 1882.

1908- Newspaper Act

  • Magistrate had the power to confiscate the assets of the press.

  • Against this confiscation one can appeal to High Court in 15 days.

  • Under this act as many as 7 press were forfeited.

1910- Indian Press Act

  • Local governments were empowered to ask any press to deposit security money.

  • It can be forfeited

  • Registration could be cancelled if anything objectionable matter was published.

  • Special Tribunal of High Court to hear within 2 months.

  • 2 copies of every issue to govt.

  • Government confiscated security money amounting to Rs. 5 lakh in first 5 years.

  • In 1921, a Press Committee was established under Tej Bahadur Sapru.

1942-Press Regulation Act

  • Registration of journalists

  • Limitation of messages regarding civil disturbances.

  • Prohibition of news regarding acts of sabotage.

  • Limitations on headlines and space given to news on disturbances.

  • Compulsory Press Advice.

  • Arbitrary Censorship.

Books

  1. India Wins Freedom: Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad

  2. India is Transition: Agha Khan

  3. The Renaissance in India: C.F. Andrews

  4. Public Service in India: H. N Kunzuru

  5. Towards struggle: Jaya-prakash Narayan

  6. India from primitive: S. A. Dange

  7. Builders of Modern India : C.R. Das

  8. The voice of Freedom: Motilal Nehru

  9. Indian Today: Rajni Palmdutt

  10. The Indian struggle: Subash Chandra Bose

  11. An Indian Pilgrim: Subhas Chandra Bose

  12. Our India: Meenu Masani

  13. The Transfer of Power in India: V.P. Menon

  14. Economic Conquest of India: Pattabhi Sitaramagya

  15. A Nation in Making: Surendranath Banerjee

Newspaper, 1905-1920

  • l. Sandhya: BrahmaBand-hav Upadhyay

  • 2. Vande Marram: Arbindo Ghosh

  • 3. Anglo-Indian Press:

  • Statesman - Radcliffe

  • Times of India - Stanley Reed Fraser

  • In 1913, Times of India costed 1 anna.

  • Srinivas Aiyanger - India (Tamil)

  • Bombay Chronicle - Benjamin Guy Harnyman

  • Vande Marram -1906

  • Dilh Mail : in 1914, first time from Delhi.

  • Leader - M.M. Malviya, Allahabad

  • Bombay Chronicle - F.S. Mehta, 1913

  • New India and Common will: Annie Besant

  • Comrade -(Taken over by Gandhi), started by Md. Ali

  • Young India - Home Rule Party - Bombay (Took over by Gandhi)

  • Independent - Motilal Nehru, 1919, Lucknow.

  • Servant -Calcutta

  • Searchlight - 1918, Patna, Sachidanand Sinha in association with Maharaja of Darbhanga.

  • Tribune - Lahore, 1911-Nagendranath Gupta; 1917-Kalinath Roy

  • Daily Gazatte- Karanchi; T.S. Vaswani

  • New Times -T.S. Vaswani

  • Sind Observer- K. Punaiyyah - 1919

  • Modern Review- Calcutta; Ramnand Chatterjee-1911

  • Hindustan Review- Patna, Sachidanand Sinha

  • Indian Textile Journal- S. Rutnagar, Bombay-1910

Bengali

  • Nayak- Panchkari Banerjee

  • Vasumati- 1914, Hamendra Prasad Ghosh

  • Prabasi (monthly)-Ramnand Chatterjee-1910

  • Hitavadi - Sanjeevani

  • Atma Sakti - Manoranjan

  • Guha Thakurata

Hindi

  • Bharat Mitra- Bal Mukund Gupt, Ambika

  • Prasad Vajpayee

  • Viswamitra-1918 Calcutta

  • Hind Kesari -1907

  • Karm Yogi-1910

  • Abhyudaya - M.M. Malviya - 1907

  • Pratap - Ganesh Shankar Vidyarathi

  • Sarva sati - Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi

Marathi

  • Sandesh -Bombay - A.B. Kolhatkar

  • Dhan Prakash - Puna-1849-weekly-Took over by Servants of India Society

  • Editors: Harinarayan Apte, G.K. Devdar, A.V. Patwar-dhan, K.G Limaij

  • Rashtramat - 1910- Tilak

  • Loksangharsh-1919 - N.C. Kelkar

Tamil

  • Swadeshmitram -1882 -Aiyyar

  • Deshbhaktana -1917 V. V. S. Ayyer

  • Indian Weekly-Subramaniya Bharati

Telugu

  • Andhra Patrika - 1908-Nageshwar Rao (Bombay); 1914 - Madras

  • Krishna Partrika - 1902 -Weekly

Urdu

  • Saurajya-Allahabad

  • Al-hilal-1st June 1912-A.K. Azad- weekly

  • Comrade - Md. Ali

  • Madina- 1912- Hamid-ul-Ansari

  • Hamdard -Md. Ali

  • Vande Marram- L.L.Rai-1920

Gujarati

  • Sanjvartman-1902

  • Navjeevan -1919- Inderlal Yagnik

  • Advocate of India -Ranchordas Lotawala

  • Prajamitra - Ranchordas Lotawala

  • Parsi -Ranchordas Lotawala

  • Hindustan (1913) -Ranchordas Lotawala

1920-1947

  • 1932- Navjeevan- converted into Harijan Bandhu.

  • Saurajya -1923- T. Prakasam (Madras)

  • Hindustan Times -1923-Sardar K.M. Panikkar; funded by Akali Dal

  • Statesman Daily edition -1929

  • 1932 National Kal-evening newspaper.

  • 1930, Sadanand - Free Press Journal/Bulletein (Bombay)

  • Free India (Calcutta)

  • Navbharat (Gujrati)

  • Navshakti (Marathi)-Bombay

  • Dinamani (Tamil)- Madras

  • Indian Express

  • 1941- Blitz - Communist

  • 1942- People's War -Communist- Evening News of Ramkrishna Dalmiya

  • Indian Daily Mail -Bombay -J.B. Petit

  • 1933 - Englishman merged with Statesman

  • 1946- R.K. Dalmiya purchased Times of India

  • Times of India- Bombay and Madras Mail (first to appoint Indian sub-editors)

  • 1943- Amrit Bazar Patrika from Allahabad

  • 1922- S.N. Majumdar, purchased Bengali version of Anand Bazar Patrika.

  • 1937-S.N. Majumdar, purchased Hindustan Standard

  • 1941-Fazlul Haq started Navyug

  • K.P. Khandelkar -Lok Many a -1925

  • Nevakal (Marathi weekly) 1930- D,G Savarkar - Sri Lokmanya, 1935

  • Kal- Paranjapaye

  • Tej -1923- Sradhanand (Urdu)

  • 1923- Milap(Urdu)

  • 1925- Siyasat (Urdu)

  • 1926- Inquilab(Urdu)

  • 1945- J.Nehru - Quam-i-Awaz