Vedic Literature

Important Statements in Veda: Rigveda

Kaushitiki / Sankhyayana Brahmana

  • Doctrine of transmigration of soul: Aitterya Brahmana

  • Aitterya wrote Aaitterya Brahmana. His son was Mahidas.

  • It mentions Andhras, Pulindas, Mutibs and other tribes.

  • It says, "Brahmana is a seeker of livelihood, receiver of gifts and removable at will (of the raj an)".

  • It says, "Vaisyas are tribute payers".

  • It says, "Sudras are servants of other, to be oppressed and beaten at will".

  • Story of Harishchandra.

  • Ajigarta sold his son Sunehsepa for 100 cows.

  • Visvamitra asked his 50 sons to leave the house as they disobeyed him.

  • First reference to 'sresthi' — leader of the guild.

  • Mentions asrama system for the first time.

  • It divides the region into five parts. Accordingly it describes five types of rulerships:

  • Gives the story of origin of kinship in a legend.

Kaushitiki Aranyaka

  • Expounds the pranagnihotra - the fire oblation through breath, a substitute for the basic rite.

Panchavis Brahmana

  • It refers to ratnins as 'viras'.

Chhandyogya Upanishad

  • It is the oldest Upanishad along with Brihadaranyak Upanishad.

  • It says, "In heaven all are equal".

  • First appearance of idea of rebirth.

  • It mentions first three ashrams for the first time.

  • Story of Satyakam Javali.

  • Story of Pravahan Javali (who taught a Brahman Svetaketu Aruneya).

  • It categorized chandals with dogs and pigs."

  • The discussion on similarity of 'atma' (soul) and 'Bhrama' between Uddalak Aruni and his son Svetaketu Aruneya.

Ken Upanishad

  • Story of Yaksha.

Rivers Mentioned in Ring Veda

  • Vitasta

  • Jhelum

  • Chenab

  • Askini

  • Kumbha

  • Kabul

  • Kubha

  • Drishadavati

  • Chautang

  • Gomati

  • Gomal

  • Kumu

  • Kurrum

  • Purushni

  • Sadinira

  • Gandak

  • Ravi

  • Shutudri

  • Sutlej

  • Vipasha

  • Beas

  • Krumu

  • Kurram