Vedic Literature-Statement in Yajurveda and Atharvaveda

Important Statement in Yajurveda (Krsna)

Taitterya Brahmana

  • Number of ratnins 12.

  • 'brahrma' — foodgrains.

  • 'sir'—plough.

  • 'kaivarta'— fisherman.

  • 'rajahiranya' — silver.

  • 'vaibhan' - handloom.

  • Vaisyas exceeded others in numbers.

  • Vaisyas among men and cows among animals are to be enjoyed by others.

  • Reference to widow remarriage.

  • Also refers to marriage between Arya male and Shudra female.

Taitterya Aranyak

  • Mention of Ambika as partner of Rudra.

Kath Upanishad

  • "Go away and let death come to you"— Uddalaka to his son Nachiketa

  • Kashmai Ma Dassasi -Nacchiketa

  • Discussion on death.

Svetasvar Upanishad

  • This is the oldest Upanishad.

  • It is the most theistic Upanishad.

Important Statement in Yajurveda (Shukla)

Shatpatha Brahmana

  • Adhavaryu priests composed it.

  • It is the most exhaustive and important of all the brahmans as it narrates the progress of the culture from Kuru Panchal to Videha

  • It mentions the story of Videha Madhav who adorning Agni and accompanying purohit Gautam Rahugan started from bank of river Saraswati and went to the bank of river Sadnira (Gandak).

  • It mentions number of ratnins as 13.

  • Some intellectual ladies mentioned by it are

  • Gargi Vachaknavi

    • Gandharva Grahita

    • Maitreyi

  • It mentions the agricultural process

    • Krashana - tilling

    • Vapan - sewing

    • Lunan — reaping and

    • Marshan — winnowing

  • 'State is deer, people are the barley and chief has bhag in whatever belongs to the people."

  • Yoking of 6 oxen to plough thus indicating deep ploughing

  • Deals with ploughing rituals at length.

  • King is described as visamitta devourer of people because he lived on the taxes collected by them.

  • Reference of rajyabhi-sheka, which took place with water collected from 17 different sources.

  • First elaborate mention of the Upanayan Ceremony

  • First reference to money lending. Kusidin meant a usurer.

  • Fist appearance of mrityu (death) theme.

  • First clear reference to rebirth

  • Ku — potters wheel.

  • Kashatriya are superior to brahmanas.

  • Refers to four different types of mounds for four different varnas.

  • Sudra's can do Soma-yajna.

  • Reference of cattle, horse, sheep and pig sacrifices.

  • It lists certain categories of human beings and animals considered unfit for sacrifices:

Important Persons

  • Gaura- a kind of buffalo

  • Aranya -wild animal

  • Ustra — camel

  • Sarabha — elephant

  • It prescribes the burial of bones and erection of a samsana or tumulus over it.

  • It mentions both the sea, eastern (Bay of Bengal) as well as western (Arabian Sea).

Brihadaranyak Upanishad

  • Yajnavalakya wrote it Yajnavalakya had two wives, Maitreyi - disciple of Uddalak Aruni.

  • Story of Asvapati of Kaikai

  • Story of Ajatshatru of Kashi

  • It says "In heaven all are equal.

  • First appearance of idea of rebirth.

  • First to give doctrine of transmigration of soul

  • First o give doctrine of karma. "Man is formed entirely out of desires, and according to desire is his resolve, and according to his resolve he performs the actions, and according to the performance of the actions is his destiny.

Atharvaveda

Gopatha Brahmana

  • 'taksha' — carpenter.

Mundak Upanishad

  • It refers to the dispute between Yajnvalakya and Gargi.

Prasna Upanishad

  • The six disciples of Paipalad ask him questions and the subsequent answers.