Vedic Literature-Bhumicchidranayaya

Vedic literature

  • Veda is derived from the Sanskrit root vid meaning to know that signifies knowledge par excellence.

  • The Vedas are Apauru-sheya i.e. not created by humans but are handed down to mankind by God.

  • Cow has been mentioned 176 times, Vana has been mentioned 70 times, Bhajayuh and Bhagadheya occur 58 times, Jana 275 times, Vis 171 or 170 times, Grama 13 times, Gana 46 times, Brahman 14 times, Kshatriya 9 times, Graha 90 times, and Sudra once; Sanaja-sanena 74 times, Pita 335 times, Mata 234 times, varna only 23 times, Rajya once and rastra 10 times, Sena 20 times.

  • Cow was the main cause of battle: called Gosu, Gavisti, Gavyat, Gavyu, and Gavesana : Copper arrow was called Ayomukham.

  • Gocaraman and Gavyuti: measure of distance; Godhuli: measurement of time. Janasya Gopa, Samgavan were the chiefs. Tribal chiefs called: janasya Gopa, Vispati, Visampati, Ganasya raja, gananam Ganapati, Gramani, Grahapati. Vraja meant feeding ground., Sradha means host or Marut

  • Krs (to cultivate) mentioned 33 times. Ksatra means authority or power.

  • Atharva Veda and the Taittiriya Samhita. a text of the Yajus collection has prayers and rituals attesting a state of perpetual conflict between the yajamana (sacrificer) his kinsmen is called the Sajata.

  • Book IV of Rig Veda mentions Sira or Phala, or langala as plough and Book VIII mentions Pushan as the Plough God. Ploughshare has been mentioned 21 times.

  • Implements: Khanitra (Hoe), Sickle (Datra and Ami), Vasi (Hand Axe), Parasu, Kulisa, Vrkna, Svadhiti, Tejas (Axe), Ayokuta (Hammar). In Pali Nangala means plough.

  • Govikartna (cow slaughterer). Gavyaccha (one who kills a cow), gosava (cow sacrifice), Karki (calf), Anuduha (ox), Prsni (Cow), Rsabha (Bull)

  • Vrihi -rice; bean - pulse (Masa), Sesamum (tila), millet (Syamaka), Sastika (Paddy), Sathi (inferior rice), Godhuma (wheat), Kumbha (storing water), Kosa (storing grain)

Bhumicchidranayaya:

  • Virgin land given to Brahmana.

  • Pastyavant - was rich household mentioned 18 times

  • Vraja mentioned 45 times means cowpen

  • Dampati - wife and husband were head of the family

  • Karmakaras were hired laboureres

  • At Jakhera - in Etah district - ploughshare has been discovered.

  • The distribution of Amsa and bhaga was the main function of die Vidhata and Gana.

  • Book I: Vishnu gave land to people; Maghavano was the rich.

  • Book II and VII of Rig Veda are die earliest Books related to families.

  • Book III is composed mainly by Visvakarma.

  • Book X mentions Rbhus (Rbhusamgha) means Assembly of prayer and distribution