Bahmani Kingdom

Bahmani Empire

Map of Bahmani Empire

Bahmani Empire

Map of Bahmani Empire

It was founded by a centurion tribesman - Amiran-i-Sadah;

  • Ismail Mukh declared independence;

  • He adopted the title Abul Fath;

  • But the actual founder was Hasan Gangu (1341-1358);

  • He adopted the title Zafar Khan;

  • Nasiruddin Ismail Shah i.e. Ismail Mukh relinquished his throne in favour of Jafar Khan 1341;

  • Hasan Gangu was a native of Delhi;

  • He was a servant of a Brahman Gangu;

  • One astrologer told him that if he adopted the title 'Gangu' then he would become the king;

  • He did so and became a king;

  • He adopted the title Allauddin Bahman Shah on 11th August 1347;

  • He made Gulbarga his capital;

  • He defeated Kotagir, Kalyan, Malkhed, Bidar, Goa, Dhabol, Kolhapur, and some parts of Telangana;

  • He renamed Gulbarga as Ahsanabad;

  • He created 4 provinces called 'Taraf:

  1. Bidar;

  2. Gulbarga;

  3. Berar;

  4. Daulatabad;

Mohammad I (1358-1375)

  • He declared Jehad against the Hindu rulers;

  • He made elaborate changes in administration;

  • Wazir-i-Asraf was the foreign minister;

  • Tarafdars were his Governors;

  • He declared Jehad against Warrangal, Orissa and Vijayanagar; Mujahid Shah (1375-1378)

  • During his reign, his nobility was divided into two groups;

    1. Foreigners;

    2. Local or Deccani Daud I (1378)

  • Mohammad I (1378-1397)

  • During his reign a famine took place;

  • He imported food grains from Malwa and Gujarat; Feroze Shah Bahmani (1397-1422)

  • According to Farishta he was a scholar of

    1. Arabian;

    2. Kamada;

    3. Persian;

    4. Telgu;

    5. Marathi

  • He lost once and won twice against the Vijayanagar Empire;

  • Gesudaraz, one of the great sufi saints, lived during his reign;

  • He was defeated by Devarai I;

  • He invited Afaqui (foreigners) to assist him;

  • He built observatories at Daulatabad;

  • According to Faristha, he married Deva Rai's daughter;

  • He built the city of Firozabad, situated on the bank of river Bhima;

  • He was a great Calligra-pher;

Ahmad Shah Wali (1422-1436)

  • He shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1424;

  • He was called 'Wali' because he was a great follower of Gesudheraj;

  • During his reign, Bahmani fought for the first time against Malwa and Gujarat; Humayun Shah (1458-1461)

  • He is known as 'Zalim' i.e. tyrant;

  • He appointed Md. Gwan as his Prime Minister; Ahmad Shah II (1461-1463)

  • He was just 9 years old when he ascended the throne;

  • Mahmood Gawan was the defacto along with Nargis Begum - Mother of Ahmad Shah I;

Md. Shah m (1463-1482):

  • Mahmood Gawan remained the defacto;

  • He adopted the title 'Laskari';

  • Russina traveller Nikitin visited during his reign;

  • Mahmood Gawan built Madarsa near Bidar during his reign;

  • Md. Shah III executed Mahmood Gawan in a misunderstanding, when he came to know the reality, he too died;

Mahmood Shah (1482-1518)

  • When he ascended the throne, he was a minor;

  • Malik Naib was the defacto;

  • After Naib; Rasim Barid became the defacto;

  • The faction between the Deccani and foreigners led to the disintegration of the empire;

  • Kalimullah was the last king of Bahmani Empire, up to 1530 and then the empire was divided into 5 parts

  1. Adil Shahi dynasty - Bijapur;

  2. Qutub Shahi dynasty - Golconda;

  3. Nizam Shahi dynasty - Ahmadnagar;

  4. Barid Shahi dynasty - Bidar;

  5. Imad Shahi dynasty - Berar;

Imad Shahi dynasty was the first dynasty to break from the Bahmani Empire;

Berar was the first Bahmani Empire to secede from the Bahmani Empire;

Successors of Bahmani Empire

Nizam Shahi (Ahmadnagar)

  • In 1490, Malik Ahmad, Governor of Junar declared him independent;

  • He was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri, Originally a Brahmin of Vijaynagar and his original name was Tima Bhatt;

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk was converted by Ahmad Shah;

  • The Bahmani Sultan and the new name was Malik Hasan;

Malik Ahmad (1494-1509)
  • He founded Ahmadnagar, situated on the bank of river Sina;

  • He shifted his capital from Junar to Ahmadnagar; Burhan Nizam Shah I (1509-1553):

  • He was the first king to assume the title of Shah;

  • In 1537, he adopted Shia faith;

  • His hostility with Bijapur increased;

  • In 1542, he captured Sholapur, but lost it later;

Hassain Nizam Shah I (1553-65)
  • He was the first person who formed a Muslim confederacy to defeat Vijaynagar in the battle of RAKSHITANDAI;

Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1565-88)
  • Was a minor when became the king;

  • His mother Khanzada or Khuja Humayun Sultana was the defacto;

  • In 1572, he annexed Berar;

Hassain Nizam Shah II (1588-89)
Ismail Nizam Shah II (1589-91)
  • During his period there was struggle between Mahadavi and Shia sect;

Burhan Nizam Shah II (1591-95)
  • Shia sect was re-established;

  • During his reign the famous book Burhan-i-Maathir was compiled;

  • He attacked the Portuguese; Chand Bibi (1600)

  • She was the widow of Adil Shah;

  • She conceded Berar to the Mughals to sue peace;

  • She was killed in 1600 and the whole administration went into the hands of Malik Amber;

Malik Amber
  • He belonged to Abyssinian family;

  • He was born in 1549;

  • During Murtaza Nizam Shah, he became the Prime Minister; also known as Va-kil-us-Sultanate;

  • He married Murtaza's daughter;

  • The nominated ruler during his time was Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1600-1630);

  • In 1607, Malik Amber transferred his capital to Junar;

  • He won the battle of Bhatvadi;

  • He was the greatest statesman of Deccan;

  • He was tolerant;

Hassain Nizam Shah II (1630-1635):-
  • In 1636, Ahmadnagar was captured by the Mughals;

Adil Shahi Dynasty off Bijapur

  • Yusuf Adil Khan founded the dynasty in 1490;

  • He was a Georgian slave;

Ismail Adil Khan (1510-1534)
  • In 1504, he captured Gulbarga;

  • He was a skilled musician;

Tsmail Adil Khan (1510-1534)
  • He established Sunni faith as the state religion;

  • During his reign Albequerque, the Portuguese Governor captured Goa;

  • He was a great patron of Art;

  • He married a Maratha lady Babuji Khannum;

  • He was an expert painter;

Malu Adil Khan (1534-15351
Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1535-1557)
  • He was the first to adopt the title of Shah;

  • He replaced Persian by Hindavi Deccani Urdu;

  • In 1555, he employed the Marathas for the first time;

  • He defeated the Vijaya-nagar king; Rama Raya;

Ali Adil Shah I (1557-1580)
  • He re-established Shia faith; during his reign, the wall of Bijapur city was constructed;

  • He built the Zami Masjid, Mecca Masjid and Gagan Mahal;

  • He was called a Sufi;

  • Secularism was resumed during his reign;

  • He appointed Acharya Vaman Pandit;

Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580-1637)
  • He was called 'Jagat Guru';

  • He built Andha Mahal, Mihtar Mahal, Malika Jahan Masjid;

  • During his reign Farista compiled 'Tarik-i-Farista';

  • He wrote a book called 'Nauras Nama';

  • He built his capital 'Nauraspur';

  • "Hens gave grants to 'Pandharpur';

  • During his reign Akka-Madina flourished;

  • He built Gol Gumbaz, it was his Mausoleum (Makbara);

  • He also built Asar Mahal;

  • He was the greatest king of the dynasty;

Ali Adil Shah II (1656-1672)
  • He was a patron of Urdu literature;

  • During his reign a lot of Urdu Deccani Scholars flourished - Mia Nursali, Miahansi, Mirzan Marsiyan;

  • Adil Shah wrote 2 books:

    1. Gulshan-i-Ishq;

    2. Ali Nama;

  • Nursali composed 2 books

    1. Kasida and

    2. Diwan-i-Gazal;

  • Mia Hansi wrote the story of Yusuf and Zulaikha and a book called Gazals;

Sikandar Adil Shah (1672-1686)
  • In September 1686, he surrendered to Aurangzeb;