Competitive Exams: Management Industrial Sociology Terminology

Employment

Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. In a commercial setting, the employer conceives of a productive activity, generally with the intention of creating profits, and the employee contributes labour to the enterprise, usually in return for payment of wages. Employment is the entire service of an individual performed for some kind of wage, under any type of contract. The law presumes that a worker's services are employment unless the employer can prove that the worker's services are exempt. Employment data represent the number of workers on the payroll during the pay period including the 12th day of the month. The pay period varies in length from employer to employer; for most employers, it is a 7-day period but not necessarily a calendar week. An employer who pays on more than one basis (such as weekly for production employees and semimonthly for office employees) reports the sum of the number of workers on each type of payroll for the period. Any service, unless specifically excluded, performed for compensation under a contract of hire whether the contract is express or implied, written or oral, and without regard to whether the service is performed on a part-time, full time or casual basis.

Contract work

This is work that is done for a specific period of time and a contract is drawn between the employer and the worker. The contract work does not include benefits Contract work could be the career ‘make over’ that you're looking for without completely cutting your ties with the corporate world. Contract work means that you can enjoy the best of both worlds. By being your own boss while still working on projects on-site-or having the choice of working from home. Contract work has proven to be a viable career option for many, but before leaving our life as an employee behind, there are a number of issues to be taken onboard and thought through carefully. Firstly, it's important to assess our skills to determine whether they are transferable to a career as an independent contractor. Secondly, thoroughly analyze the market demand for the type of service we plan to offer-think also about supply and demand in that market. Highly competitive markets can make it harder to gain a foot hold and win business in the early stages. In the final analysis, effective networking and your track record and proven expertise in the field are major factors in establishing our consulting career. Some popular areas for independent contractors include:

  • programming

  • web development

  • web design

  • graphic design

  • management consulting

  • marketing consulting

Maladjusted workers

Workers with nervous temperaments tend to get maladjusted because normalcy of personality is an essential condition of proper adjustment. Maladjusted of the worker can either be mild or serious. And their symptoms

  • Jealousy
  • Self-pity
  • Cheerless bearing
  • Lack of co-operation
  • Fault finding
  • Strong emotions
  • Conflict with colleagues
  • Abnormal desire to attract attention

A worker with this problem is jealous of the other workers over very minor issues and at times believes that he himself is a victim of others enmity. He does not cooperate with others and is constantly engaged in finding fault with the management and with his colleague. In attaining his own interests he plays no attention to the propriety or impropriety of means, and fights with others to gain advantage. He wants to attract the attention of other persons towards himself, and is not bothered about the propriety of the means he adopts for this purpose.

Palekar tribunal

The central government had appointed two tribunals under the provisions of the working journalists and other newspaper employees and miscellaneous provisions act 1955. The function of the tribunals was to recommend rates of the wages in respect of working journalists and non journalists newspaper employees in Feb. 1979 headed by D. G palekar retired judge of the supreme court. The tribunals submitted their recommendations to the government on 13 august 1980. The government had accepted the recommendations of the tribunal except those relating to the dearness allowance. The government published a formula with minor modifications and order to this effect. The government after giving the opportunities to everyone concerned to present their opinion finally modified the dearness allowances formula recommended by the tribunals. Orders notifying the revised rates of the dearness allowances were published in the gazette of Indian extraordinary of 20 July 1981.