Competitive Exams: Organizational Behaviour

Freud's Theory

Describes the theory of unconscious behavior as shaped by Sigmund Freud. Give out the characteristics of needs or motives which are directed to satisfy by human behavior

The concepts of motivation are the central part of organizational behavior. Whenever a Certain behavior is be encouraged is be encouraged give rewards. Whenever a certain behavior is to be discouraged, give punishment. But human behavior is not always motivated either by rewards or by punishment or both. Much of the human behavior is instinctively based. The instincts behavior may be jealously, love, anxiety, fear, lust ext.

Implicit in the industrial approach to human behavior is the hint that human behavior is unconscious behaviorist was Sigmund Freud (1856 − 1939, Sigmund Freud, physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and father of psychoanalysis, is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century) However, who shaped the theory of unconscious behavior. Freud's theory of the unconscious, then, is highly deterministic, a fact which, given the nature of nineteenth century science, should not be surprising. Freud was arguably the first thinker to apply deterministic principles systematically to the sphere of the mental, and to hold that the broad spectrum of human behavior is explicable only in terms of the (usually hidden) mental processes or states which determine it. Thus, instead of treating the behavior of the neurotic as being causally inexplicable-which had been the prevailing approach for centuries-Freud insisted, on the contrary, on treating it as behavior for which is meaningful to seek an explanation by searching for causes in terms of the mental states of the individual concerned. Hence the significance which he attributed to slips of the tongue or pen, obsessive behavior, and dreams-all, he held, are determined by hidden causes in the person's mind, and so they reveal in covert form what would otherwise not be known at all. This suggests the view that freedom of the will is, if not completely an illusion, certainly more tightly circumscribed than is commonly believed, for it follows from this that whenever we make a choice we are governed by hidden mental processes of which we are unaware and over which we have no control.

The postulate that there are such things as unconscious mental states at all is a direct function of Freud's determinism, his reasoning here being simply that the principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, for it is evident that there is frequently nothing in the conscious mind which can be said to cause neurotic or other behavior. An ‘unconscious’ mental process or event, for Freud, is not one which merely happens to be out of consciousness at a given time, but is rather one which cannot, except through protracted psychoanalysis, be brought to the forefront of consciousness. The postulation of such unconscious mental states entails, of course, that the mind is not, and cannot be, identified with consciousness or that which can be an object of consciousness-to employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon the part which is amenable to direct inspection, the conscious mind Deeply associated with this view of the mind is Freud's account of the instincts or drives. The instincts, for Freud, are the principal motivating forces in the mental realm, and as such they ‘energies’ the mind in all of its functions. There are, he held, an indefinitely large number of such instincts, but these can be reduced to a small number of basic ones, which he grouped into two broad generic categories, Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers all the instincts towards aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty. Thus it is a mistake to interpret Freud as asserting that all human actions spring from motivations which are sexual in their origin, since those which derive from Thanatos are not sexually motivated-indeed, Thanatos is the irrational urge to destroy the source of all sexual energy in the annihilation of the self. Having said that, it is undeniably true that Freud gave sexual drives an importance and centrality in human life, human actions, and human behavior which was new (and to many, shocking), arguing as he does both that the sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from birth (the theory of infantile sexuality), and that sexual energy (libido) is the single most important motivating force in adult life. However, even here a crucial qualification has to be added-Freud effectively redefined the term ‘sexuality’ here to make it cover any form of pleasure which is or can be derived from the body. Thus his theory of the instincts or drives is essentially that the human being is energized or driven from birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasure.

Freud reasoned that human behavior is like an iceberg. Only small part of which is visible. However, the part of iceberg, which is not seen, controls the seen part. According to him human personality are always conflicting with three constructs. The final outcome, which is the observable behaviour, is the product of this conflict. So he got an idea that this is the reason why many a times a human can not verbalize his motivations.

Modern psychologists are prepared to recognize the existence of unconscious behavior. But not like Freud. They believe human behavior is sparked by motive. A motive is felt need. Human behavior is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. They have five characteristics.

  • The need having the highest strength dominates the human behavior.
  • A need once satisfied ceases to influence behavior.
  • when a need is satisfied, it gives rise to new need.
  • needs are recurrent in nature.
  • Needs are ubiquitous. Psychologists do not totally agree on how to classify various human motives. However some psychologists tend to classify motives according as to weather they are unlearned or learned weather they are psychologically based.

Description

Define mechanism serve as an important function of keeping the human personality integrated; bring out these dense mechanism including the psychological process with illustration

Defense mechanism is the behavior occurring to deal with frustration. Frustration occurs when need fulfillment is continually blocked or when ones self image are in jeopardy. Defense mechanisms are unconscious behavior. The defense mechanisms serve an important function of keeping the human personality integrated.

Rationalization is giving pseudo justification to explain ones failures. The common examples are sour grapes or a bad workman quarreling with his tools.

Certain patterns of behavior are learnt during the childhood that are subsequently, in the adult age, replaced by the behaviors acceptable by the society. A superior getting angry with his subordinate and throwing files at him or a person throwing a pen because of the ink not flowing, are the examples of this defense mechanism

Aggression is also known as emotional transference. A superior scolding his subordinate because of something happening at homes is the example of this defense mechanism.

As long as a person is in his imaginary castle he is unhappy but some time or the other he has to come down to the mother earth. When he comes out of the imaginary world the problem starts pinching him again. The increased frequency of fantasizing is a signal that one had better seek some help from a psychiatrist.

Resignation, flight or withdrawal is a complete surrender to the problem situation. This is accepting a situation and ceasing any efforts to deal with the problem.

Describes the theory of unconscious behavior as shaped by Sigmund Freud. Give out the characteristics of needs or motives which are directed to satisfy by human behavior

The concepts of motivation are the central part of organizational behavior. Whenever a Certain behavior is be encouraged is be encouraged give rewards. Whenever a certain behavior is to be discouraged, give punishment. But human behavior is not always motivated either by rewards or by punishment or both. Much of the human behavior is instinctively based. The instincts behavior may be jealously, love, anxiety, fear, lust ext.

Implicit in the industrial approach to human behavior is the hint that human behavior is unconscious behaviorist was Sigmund Freud (1856 − 1939, Sigmund Freud, physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and father of psychoanalysis, is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century) However, who shaped the theory of unconscious behavior. Freud's theory of the unconscious, then, is highly deterministic, a fact which, given the nature of nineteenth century science, should not be surprising. Freud was arguably the first thinker to apply deterministic principles systematically to the sphere of the mental, and to hold that the broad spectrum of human behavior is explicable only in terms of the (usually hidden) mental processes or states which determine it. Thus, instead of treating the behavior of the neurotic as being causally inexplicable-which had been the prevailing approach for centuries-Freud insisted, on the contrary, on treating it as behavior for which is meaningful to seek an explanation by searching for causes in terms of the mental states of the individual concerned. Hence the significance which he attributed to slips of the tongue or pen, obsessive behavior, and dreams-all, he held, are determined by hidden causes in the person's mind, and so they reveal in covert form what would otherwise not be known at all. This suggests the view that freedom of the will is, if not completely an illusion, certainly more tightly circumscribed than is commonly believed, for it follows from this that whenever we make a choice we are governed by hidden mental processes of which we are unaware and over which we have no control.

The postulate that there are such things as unconscious mental states at all is a direct function of Freud's determinism, his reasoning here being simply that the principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, for it is evident that there is frequently nothing in the conscious mind which can be said to cause neurotic or other behavior. An ‘unconscious’ mental process or event, for Freud, is not one which merely happens to be out of consciousness at a given time, but is rather one which cannot, except through protracted psychoanalysis, be brought to the forefront of consciousness. The postulation of such unconscious mental states entails, of course, that the mind is not, and cannot be, identified with consciousness or that which can be an object of consciousness-to employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon the part which is amenable to direct inspection, the conscious mind Deeply associated with this view of the mind is Freud's account of the instincts or drives. The instincts, for Freud, are the principal motivating forces in the mental realm, and as such they ‘energies’ the mind in all of its functions. There are, he held, an indefinitely large number of such instincts, but these can be reduced to a small number of basic ones, which he grouped into two broad generic categories, Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers all the instincts towards aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty. Thus it is a mistake to interpret Freud as asserting that all human actions spring from motivations which are sexual in their origin, since those which derive from Thanatos are not sexually motivated-indeed, Thanatos is the irrational urge to destroy the source of all sexual energy in the annihilation of the self. Having said that, it is undeniably true that Freud gave sexual drives an importance and centrality in human life, human actions, and human behavior which was new (and to many, shocking), arguing as he does both that the sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from birth (the theory of infantile sexuality), and that sexual energy (libido) is the single most important motivating force in adult life. However, even here a crucial qualification has to be added-Freud effectively redefined the term ‘sexuality’ here to make it cover any form of pleasure which is or can be derived from the body. Thus his theory of the instincts or drives is essentially that the human being is energized or driven from birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasure.

Freud reasoned that human behavior is like an iceberg. Only small part of which is visible. However, the part of iceberg, which is not seen, controls the seen part. According to him human personality are always conflicting with three constructs. The final outcome, which is the observable behaviour, is the product of this conflict. So he got an idea that this is the reason why many a times a human can not verbalize his motivations.

Modern psychologists are prepared to recognize the existence of unconscious behavior. But not like Freud. They believe human behavior is sparked by motive. A motive is felt need. Human behavior is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. They have five characteristics.

  • The need having the highest strength dominates the human behavior.
  • A need once satisfied ceases to influence behavior.
  • when a need is satisfied, it gives rise to new need.
  • needs are recurrent in nature.
  • Needs are ubiquitous. Psychologists do not totally agree on how to classify various human motives. However some psychologists tend to classify motives according as to weather they are unlearned or learned weather they are psychologically based.

Mechanism

Define mechanism serve as an important function of keeping the human personality integrated; bring out these dense mechanism including the psychological process with illustration

Defense mechanism is the behavior occurring to deal with frustration. Frustration occurs when need fulfillment is continually blocked or when ones self image are in jeopardy. Defense mechanisms are unconscious behavior. The defense mechanisms serve an important function of keeping the human personality integrated.

Rationalization is giving pseudo justification to explain ones failures. The common examples are sour grapes or a bad workman quarreling with his tools.

Certain patterns of behavior are learnt during the childhood that are subsequently, in the adult age, replaced by the behaviors acceptable by the society. A superior getting angry with his subordinate and throwing files at him or a person throwing a pen because of the ink not flowing, are the examples of this defense mechanism

Aggression is also known as emotional transference. A superior scolding his subordinate because of something happening at homes is the example of this defense mechanism.

As long as a person is in his imaginary castle he is unhappy but some time or the other he has to come down to the mother earth. When he comes out of the imaginary world the problem starts pinching him again. The increased frequency of fantasizing is a signal that one had better seek some help from a psychiatrist.

Resignation, flight or withdrawal is a complete surrender to the problem situation. This is accepting a situation and ceasing any efforts to deal with the problem.