Competitive Exams: Philosophy Glossary (Part 2 of 4)

  1. Yagya-a way to show gratitude towards nature, its two kinds being shreyas (performed for benefit) and preyas (performed as thanksgiving)
  2. Rna-means debt that human being owes and have to pay back. Pitri-rina (debt to parents), dev-rina (to gods) & acharya-rina (to teachers) are its 3 forms
  3. Karma-governed by rta, it refers to actions which bears fruit. It may be prarbadha (already fructified), sanchit (awaiting fruition), sanchayiman (presently bearing fruit)
  4. Lingapramarsha is instantiation of vyapti and referred for the third time in nyaya syllogism
  5. Vyaptigrehoprayas is the method to arrive at vyapti which can be through anvaya, vyatriki, sahcharya, bhuyodarshan and tarka.
  6. Adrishta is the universal principal taking account of individual's karma.
  7. Chit in sankhya is the construct of manas, buddhi and ahankara reflecting purusha wrongly. Kaivalya is the knowledge of this wrong identification of purusha with prakriti.
  8. Chita Vriti-With the wrong identification with things, purusha assumes the ‘form’ of that thing. This form is called vriti or modification. 5 kinds of Vritis are parmana, viparyaya, vikalpa, nidra and smriti.
  9. Yoga-the cessation of the modifications of chitta through meditation is yoga.
  10. Buddhist Ashtang Marg-ODSALEMN-right observance, duty, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, meditation
  11. Man Is The Composite Of 5 Skandhas Vigyan, Vedna, Sangya, Sanskara And Rupa
  12. 3 Pitaks-Sutta, Vinay And Abhidhamma
  13. Boddhisatva is the one who has taken a vow to become buddha
  14. Vidhi, nishedha and arthvada-the classification of mahavakyas according to which Vidhi are the mantras used in yajna, nishedha are the mantras that are prohibited to use in a particular yajna, and arthvada is the explanation of their meanings.
  15. Shabanityavada-mimansaks thoery of meaning according to which words are eternal and are a divine creation
  16. Anvitabhidanvada-Prabhakar's theory of meaning by which words are meaningful only in relation to other words in a sentence.
  17. Abhihitavyayavada-Kumaril's theory of meaning by which words are independently meaningful and it is the logical connection between the words that suggests the meaning of the sentence.
  18. Sambandha-the category of relation admitted by vaisheshika. It is of 3 kinds samyoga (conjunction), samvaya (inherence) and shrinkhala (chain)
  19. Karnata is theory of causation in indian philosphy emphasizing on whether or not cause exists in its effects. Its two kinds are satkaryavada and asatkaryavad
  20. Parmanyavada-Theories of validity of knowledge as to whether knowledge is itself valid or requires external sources to validate it. Two kinds of validity are internal (svatah-parmanyavada) and external (pratah-parmanyavada)
  21. Triputi-Samwit-Theory of provability of self maintained by prabhakar according to which in every act of knowledge, there is simultaneous revelation of knower (self), known (object) and the knowledge itself.
  22. Jnatatavada-Theory of provability of self maintained by Kumaril which maintains that consciousness is inferred through the cognizedness of the object and is not self-luminous.
  23. Chit is the self illuminating consciousness and does not require any other source for its light and differnt from chitta of samkhya and yoha (vedanta)
  24. Achit is the matter or the non-conscious aspect of Brahman.
  25. Being is the unchanging reality while becoming is the process or state by which one becomes a being
  26. Prama is right apprehension of objects (yatharthanubhava prama), cognizing object as it is:
  27. Aprama is invalid knowledge, the cognition of objects falsely. Its four kinds are smriti (memory), sanshay (doubt), viparyaya (error) and tarka (hypothetical reasoning)
  28. Pramana refers to the valid source of means of acquiring knowledge. The 6 pramans are pratyaksha, anumana, upmana, shabd, abhav and anuaplabdhi.