Competitive Exams: Philosophy Glossary (Part 3 of 4)

  1. Rta-The basic principle, eternal moral order of the universe, operating in its every sphere be it nature, human life, or morality.
  2. Yagya-a way to show gratitude towards nature, its two kinds being shreyas (performed for benefit) and preyas (performed as thanksgiving)
  3. akhyati-Prabhakar's theory of error according to which error is due to non-apprehension of the distinction between two cognitions and their objects. The objects are presented only partially, but are wrongly taken as one.
  4. viparitkhayati-kumaril's theory of error according to which error is due to misapprehension of the synthesis of two cognitions
  5. Anyathakhyati-Nyaya Theory of Error states error as the wrong apprehension of the object which exists elsewhere (anyatha) and which is retrieved from the memory through extraordinary perception (jnana lakshana partakshya)
  6. Anirvachniyakhyati-According to Advait Vedanta error is indescribable (anirvachniya). It is neither real, nor unreal as everything is real as long as it works, but unreal when one goes on a higher plane of existence (parmarthik satta).
  7. Anekantavada-According to Jainism reality is manifold (anekanta) and can be apprehended from different viewpoints (nayas). There is no absolute reality and no particular viewpoint absolutely true or false, or both.
  8. Syadvada-The logical representation of anekantavada which says that no particular viewpoint about reality is true, or false, or both or neither. Every viewpoint is a Perhaps (syat) and is a combination of both true or false.
  9. Nayavada-Jain's epistemological theory of apprehension of reality from 7 different viewpoints (nayas). Reality is not absolute, but relative. These viewpoints are naigam, sangraha, vyavahar, rjustutra, shabd, samabhirudh, and evambhut.
  10. Mokhsa-when all the karmic particles are removed from the soul (nirjara) and further inflow of the same is stopped (samvara), soul gets moksha. This is achieved by practicing tri-ratna-samyag gyan, samyak darshan and samyak charitra.
  11. Pratyaksha (Nyaya) -According to Gautam, pratyaksha is indriyaartha sannikarsh utpann gyan. Ie. Knowledge derived through Sense-object contact. GangEsha says “sakshat karyatvam lakshanam pratyaksha” i.e.. Direct contact, having 3 modes-savikalpak, nirvikalpak and pratibhigyan, and 2 kinds-laukika and alaukika.
  12. Pratyakha (Buddhism) Perception is the bare awareness without any determination and imagination (kalpana). It is only nirvikalpak and savikalpaka of nyaya is rejected by Buddhist as it includes memory.
  13. Upamaana-according to nyaya, upmana is sanjna-sanjni sambandha, i.e.. Knowledge of the similarity between the object which is known and which is unknown. Its 4 stages are Atideshvakya (information), sadrishyati (perception), vakyarthsmriti (recollection), upmiti (conclusion of comparison)
  14. Aprithiksiddhi-Metaphysical theory of Ramanuja according to which there is an inseparable relation of cause and effect between Brahman and world. Indivisible Brahman can manifest itself in various forms of this universe.
  15. Parinamvada-The theory of creation according to which effect is the real modification of the cause. Its two forms are Braham Parinamvada-modification of Brahman into world (Advaita), and Prakriti Parinamvada-modification of Prakriti (Sankhya).
  16. Panchshila-the five practices of right conduct in Jainism which are ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing) brahamcharya (celibacy), aparigraha (non-attachment).
  17. Eudaimonia-Aristotle's ethical theory that aims at the achievement of a good life. Satisfaction of objective conditions of happiness is more important than pursuing the subjective experience of pleasure.
  18. Ethical Realism-there are objective moral values and ethical statements are factual claims which can be true or false, but which does not depend upon our beliefs and attitudes. Its two forms are intuitionism and naturalism.
  19. Intuitionism-meta-ethical theory which holds that objective moral values are intuitively known, but can not be defined like the property of goodness which is indefinable (Moore).
  20. Utilitarianism-An ethical theory which states the worth of an action in terms of its utility or happiness. Its 2 forms are gross (subject's happiness only), and refined (greatest happiness of the greatest number).
  21. Kant's moral theory-the reverence to categorical imperative, i.e.. Commands appylying to us unconditionally owing to our autonomous rationality.
  22. Truth functions-a proposition having a definite truth value which is dependent upon the truth values of its constituents. E. g a conjunction is true, when both elements are true, etc.
  23. Feminism-The philosophical standpoint which considers society and knowledge as dominated by male and endeavors to the abolition of the male domination in various spheres like art, literature, politics etc.
  24. Categorical syllogism-An argument consisting of 2 premises and one conclusion having three terms, viz minor, major and middle, in which middle occurs twice in the premises, but never in the conclusion.
  25. Quantification-its an operation to bind the variables in a propositional function to generate general propositions. Its 2 forms are universal and existential quantification.
  26. Universal and Existential Quantification-To quantify variables so that
  27. Decision procedures-A method for solving a decision problem (requiring only yes or no as answer) given in the form of an algorithm is called a decision procedure for that problem
  28. Axiomatic system-it is a kind of formal system having a set of fundamental axioms from which further rules can be derived as theorems of that system. Its two requirements are completeness and consistency.
  29. Argument form-general form of the argument whose elements serve as variables which can be substituted as per the problem to yield a proper argument.
  30. Deterrent theory of punishment-Aim of punishment should be prevention against the repetition of crime. Its done by generating fear, which creates hatred for the crime, and which consequently leads to its deterrence.
  31. Reformative theory of punishment-aim of punishment should be reformation of the criminal by educating him. Its based on the biblical maxim of hate the sin, not the sinner.
  32. Retributive theory of punishment-aim of punishment is to deliver negative rewards to the criminal for crime done in order to maintain the dignity of law.
  33. Correspondence theory of truth-a statement is true if it corresponds with actual state of affairs in the world.
  34. Coherence theory of truth-a statement is true if it coheres with other propositions of the system already established as true.
  35. Pragmatic theory of truth-a statement is true if it works, or the performance of it leads to useful activity.
  36. Apurva-apurva is the link between act and its fruit. It is the causal potency (shakti) in the act which leads to its fructification [mimansa]
  37. Dharma is the command or injunction which impels men to action. It is supra-sensible and consists in the commands of veda. [mimansa]
  38. Karmas-Actions that men do. These are classified as obligatory (nitya and naimittika), optional (kamya) and prohibited (pratisiddha) [mimansa]
  39. Apvarga-Liberation in mimansa achieved by abstention from optional (kamya) and prohibited (pratisiddha) karmas. Kumaril believes in gyan-karma-samuchhyavada-the harmonious combination of knowledge and action as a means to liberation.
  40. Qualities-The properties or features of things, whether they are intrinsic or extrinsic to the thing itself.