Competitive Exams: Thinkers and Schools

Thinker

Epistemology

Metaphysics

Theory

School

Thales

N/A

Water

N/A

Milesian

Anaximander

N/A

Boundless Something

N/A

Milesian

Anaximenes

N/A

Air

Rarefaction, Conden

Milesian

Heraclitus

N/A

Fire, Change

N/A

N/A

Pythagoras

N/A

Numbers

N/A

N/A

Parmenides

N/A

Being

N/A

Eleatics

Zeno

N/A

No plurality & Paradoxes of Motion

Eleatics

Empedocles

N/A

4 earth, water, fire & Air

Love-Hate for union disunion of elements

Eleatics

Anaxagoras

N/A

Infinite

Relative change, Nous

Eleatics

Democritus

N/A

Atom

N/A

Eleatics

Plato

Knowledge of Ideas only. 2 kinds of knowledge episteme (know.) and doxa (opinion)

Ideas. Demiurge creating the world & Soul rational, spirited, appetitive

N/A

Idealism

Aristotle

Sciences- (logic, theoretical, practical, productive), No platonic ideas.

Form + Matter, 4 causes (material, formal, efficient, final)

God Unmoved Mover

Active-Passive Intellect, Eudaimonia (self-realization), Golden Mean.

N/A

Descartes

No innate ideas, Primary-Secondary Qualities

God = Mind, Body

Cogito ergo sum

Dualism

Spinoza

Know. As adequate ideas, Coherence theory of truth, 3 grades-inadequate ideas, clear ideas, intuitive knowledge

God → (Mind-Body), attributes → thought-extension (modes) Natura naturata atemporal Natura naturans-temporal

Parallelism

Pantheism & Spiritual Monism

Leibnitz

Innate ideas, Truths of reason and matters of fact.

Monads-forces, metaphysical points, infinite, windowless, kinds sleeping (material), dreaming (living), waking (human). Activities of monads perception & appetition & God Monas Monadum

Principle of sufficient reason, Principle of Continuity, Law of identity of indiscernibles, Pre-established Harmony

N/A

Locke

No innate ideas, Abstract ideas-yes, simple-complex ideas, Primary-Secondary qualities (SI), Modes-Substances-Relations (CI), Degrees of know. intuitive, demonstrative, sensitive (sensation & reflection)

N/A

Agreement & disagreement between ideas.

Representative Realism, Scientific Realism

Berkeley

No abstract ideas, No distinction between primary-secondary qualities.

Only ideas, no matter, God-ultimate substance

Esse ist percipi

Subjective Idealism

Hume

Impression-Ideas (relations of ideas, matters of facts), No abstract ideas.

No God, No Self.

N/A

Skepticism

Kant

Knowledge Of synthetic a priori judgments, conditions of know space-time.

Noumenon-phenomenon

12 Categories of Understanding & Transcendental Unity of Apperception

Transcendental Idealism

Hegel

Ideas as objective, 3 levels of knowledge general, ideational and philosophical

Absolute Idea

Dialectical Evolution of Idea thesis, anti-thesis, synthesis

Objective Idealism