Competitive Exams: Thinker & Theories

Vivekananda

Practical Vedanta Vedanta to be practiced in all walks of life, unity of 4 yogas gyan yoga, bhakti yoga, karma yoga, raj yoga & Universal Religion making Vedanta universal religion

Aurobindo

  • Evolution for realization of supreme reality, evolution of both soul and cosmos, evolution by involution descent of spirit into matter, life, mind. Integration ascent through descent
  • Mind and Supermind mind an evolute of supermind, Grades of consciousness mind-higher mind-illumined mind-intuition-overmind
  • Integral Yoga Purna Yoga complete transformation of human personality (psychic trans spiritual trans. Higher mind illumined mind intuition overmind supramental transformation)

Iqbal

  • God Absolute Ego
  • Self human ego
  • Matter unorganized Ego

Tagore

  • Religion of man effort to reveal divinity inherent in him, God not transcendent but immanent, organic relation b/w man and god, evil because of free will
  • Ideas on education emphasis on harmony and total development of personality, cultivation of thought and imagination, choice of subjects by the learner, condemnation of mechanistic learning, learning in native language, learning from nature itself, Tapasya and Sadhna in learning

Bhattacharya

  • Concept of philosophy presents speakable beliefs, 3 grades of philosophy philo of object, subject and truth
  • Subject as freedom sub. As self-conscious I, dissociated from the object, modes of subjectivity like knowing, feeling etc.
  • Subject as free ultimate stage the ideal, realm of indefinite the absolute.

Radhakrishnan

  • Intellect and intuition complementary to each other, intuition direct intellect indirect
  • Idealist view of life world fellowship of different creeds, ideal of sarvamukti, ultimate reality as spiritual towards which world is moving.

Krishnamurti

  • Freedom from the known
  • Analysis of Self

Gandhi

  • Nonviolence positive virtue
  • Satyagraha nonviolent clinging to truth
  • Swaraj self rule spiritually, politically, socially
  • Critique of modern civilization materialistic, immoral

Ambedkar

  • Varna and caste system
  • Neo-buddhism