Competitive Exams: Political Science Study Material Formation of new States

Formation of new States

  • Article 3 deals with the formation of a new State out of the territories of the existing States.

  • Parliament, under Article 3, can increase or diminish the area of any State or alter the boundaries or change the name of any State.

  • The Indian Constitution empowers the Parliament to alter the territory or names, etc, of the States without their consent or concurrence.

  • Thus, it is clear that the very existence of a State depends upon the sweet will of the

Part I: Union and territory

  • Article
  • 1 Name and territory of the Union.
  • 2 Admission or establishment of new States.
  • 2 A [Repealed. ]
  • 3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.
  • 4 Laws made under Articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.
  • The Articles 2, 3 and 4 thus demonstrate the flexibility of the Indian Constitution.
  • By a simple majority and by ordinary legislative process, Parliament may form a new State or alter the boundaries etc of the existing States and thereby, can change the political map of India.

Creating new states

  • Of late, there are many demands for new States. For e. g. Telangana (Andhra Pradesh), Vidharbha (Maharashtra), Bodoland (Assam), Gorkhaland (West Bengal), Kodagu (Karnataka), PojndicherryHarit Pradesh (UP), Delhi etc.

  • Needless to say, all the demands cannot be met as it would lead to proliferation of States to a point of federal burdens; they are economically unviable; national unity would be threatened; small States are not necessarily better-governed as seen in the north-east; administrative problems about creation of institutions like High Court, Secretariat etc; the costs of setting up a capital etc, to name some problems of creating new states.

  • However, Union Parliament has passed three Acts in 2000 for the creation of three new states Uttaranchal, Jharkhand and mittee accepted its recommendations in 1949, but the demand for the linguistic reorganisation of the States persisted in the southern States particularly in the Telugu speaking areas. As the agitation took a violent turn in the Telugu speaking areas, the Congress conceded the reorganization of the Telugu speaking area in the State of Andhra Pradesh in 1953.

  • To make an exhaustive study of the problem, the Government of India set up the State Reorganization Commission in 1953 which was headed by Fazal.

Creation of more States

  • The Constitution (One hundred and second Amendment) Bill, 2003 and the State of Delhi Bill, 2003 seeking to grant Statehood to Delhi, which were introduced in the Lok Sabha on 18.8. 2003 and referred to the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs, lapsed with the dissolution of the thirteenth Lok Sabha.

  • An Inter-Ministerial Committee headed by an Additional Secretary in the Ministry has been entrusted to examine the earlier Bills in the light of observations made by the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee and suggestions made by the Chief Minister, Delhi with a view to exploring the possibility of introducing fresh Bills.

  • Under the Common Minimum Programme, the Government declared that it is committed to consider the demand for the formation of a Telangana State at an appropriate time after due consultations and consensus.

Demand for Smaller States

  • It was in the year 2000 that 3 new small states Uttaranchal, Chhatisgarh and Jharkhand were carved out from UP, MP and Bihar respectively.

  • Demands for several other states like Vidarbha, Telangana, Harit Pradesh, Mithilanchal, Bodoland etc have been constantly made.

  • It was the victory of TRS in 2004 elections in Andhra Pradesh, which has again fuelled the demand for new states.

Why such demands arise?

  1. The relative under development of a particular region as compared to the other regions of the same state.

  2. Lack of participation in mainstream politics and decision making from a particular region.

  3. Distinct cultural identity based on language, tribe etc existing in a particular pocket of the state.

  4. Distance from the power centre in the state leading to problem of administrative inefficiency and sense of alienation among the people.

  5. Politics of vote bank.

Advantages of small states

  • It will increase administrative efficiency leading to proper utilization of resources.

  • Development will take place and regional disparities will become narrow.

  • Small states are more effective for fiscal management.

  • The popular demands, needs and problems of thf; region may be addressed to efficiently.

  • There shall be greater competition among states for more development.

  • Smaller states~wflThave more homogenous preferences. Disadvantages

  • It will open the Pandora's box creating demand for more states.

  • It will add to the burden of administrative expense, which could have been utilized for development work.

  • Smaller states do not necessarily show better economic performance, e. g. North eastern states.

  • It may increase inter-state conflicts e. g. Water.

  • The disputes may lead to more and moro demand for special packages fojdjeyelojjment by the parent state