Competitive Exams: National Symbols
- National Flag: Adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 24th of July 1947, the ratio between the length and breadth is 3: 2, consists of strips of 3 colors saffron, white and green, from top to bottom, and a wheel of blue color in the middle having 24 spokes.
- National Emblem: Taken from the Ashokan Pillar in Sarnath. There are four lions standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels. The words Satyamewa Jayate from the Mundaka Upanishad, meaning Truth Alone Triumphs inscribed below, in Devanagari Script.
- National Anthem: The song composed originally in Bengali by Ravindra Nath Tagore, was adopted in Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24th January 1950. It was first sung on 27th December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress.
- National Song: The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with ‘Jana-gana-mana’ The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
- National Calendar: The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the official purposes. Dates of the national calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
- National Animal: The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigiris is the national animal. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, ‘Project Tiger’ was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project.
- National Bird: The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. It is a colorful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck.
- The peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the south and the east of the Indus river, Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula. The peacock is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- National Flower: Lotus (Nelumbo) is the national flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.