Competitive Exams: Political Science Study Material: Glossary J

Political Science Glossary: J


The Jacobins were a revolutionary group during the French Revolution of 1789 onwards, and their principal fight was for the creation of a single national parliament, democratically expressing the will of the people and solely symbolizing the sovereignty of the state. Revolutionary leaders, such as Lenin, who have ruled through centrally-imposed decision, as they maintain for the good of the populace, have also been described as Jacobin.

Judicial Review

Judicial review is a method whereby a superior judicial body may decide whether an executive or legislative action is constitutional. It is most frequently used when a court decides that an act of the legislature is unconstitutional and hence void, as in the USA where the Supreme Court has, over the past 200 years, declared invalid some significant acts of Congress as well as pronounced unconstitutional certain congressional procedures, such as the legislative veto.

Judicial Benches

Supreme Court: Constitutional/Full Bench-constitutes of five or more Judges of the Supreme Court. Divisional Bench-constitutes of two or more Judges of the Supreme Court but in case of participation of the Chief Justice, three or more Judges of the Supreme Court. High Court: Full Bench-3 or more Judges, Divisional Bench-2 or more Judges and Single Bench-only one Judge.