Competitive Exams: Political Science Study Material: Glossary N

Political Science Glossary: N

National Government

This is a form of coalition Government with participation of almost all the political parties represented in the Legislature. Essentially there exists no Opposition party in the Legislature. Usually this form of Government comes during the time of national crisis. It is, in fact, a ‘Government by consensus’ on certain basic issues affecting the country. Such a Government was formed in Britain by Winston Churchill in May, 1940 during the World War II with a common goal of defeating the fascist forces of Germany.


It is a process of acquiring ownership and control of the private properties such as bank, industries etc. by the Government in public interest. The purpose of Nationalization of the private industries is to ensure maximum fulfillment of the public interest in running those industries. For example, the Government of India nationalized 14 private sector bank in 1969 in the public interest.

Natural Justice

By natural justice is meant the ideas that there are some qualities and values inherent in the very concept of law, as opposed to arbitrary decision making, and that individuals should be able to claim certain basic protections in the legal system regardless of whether they are specifically given those protections by statute. The two most common tenets of natural justice in the British legal system are audi alteram partem (that each party has a right to be heard in any dispute) and nemo judex in parte sua (that the judge of a case should have no personal interest in its outcome).

Natural Rights

Natural rights are those human rights or entitlements which are held to stem from natural law, whatever definition may be given to the latter concept. One can probably divide natural rights into two broad categories, as they are encountered in legal and political theory.


This is a method of acquiring the citizenship by a foreign national in a country on the basis of continuous residence in that country for a prescribed period. The concerned foreign national is granted citizenship on the request as a naturalized citizen.


It refers to the members of those revolutionary groups of Marxist genre, who could not adjust with the Parliamentary form of Government and continued to organize subversive and violent activities against the Government. Their final aim is to change the structures of the society through the revolutionary means. Since these revolutionary groups initiated their movement in 1967 at Naxalbari town of West Bengal, such movements are called Naxalbari movements and its supporters are called Naxalites. At present, Naxalites hold positions in some areas of Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.


The ideology of the Nazi party led by the German dictator Hitler before the Second World War, has come to be known as Nazism. It is characterized by extreme nationalism, extreme hatred towards the other races specially Jews, centralization of the powers in a single hands, faith in imperialism, war and violence etc. This is a Fascist version of Germany coupled with the racial superiority of the German race (the Aryans).


The classical colonialism, based on the direct control of the colonies by the colonial powers has gone but it has been replaced by more subtle and indirect forms of control, which is named as the Neo-colonialism. It means those tactics and methods adopted by the developed countries, which exercise various forms of control over the economy and polity of the Third World Countries. Such methods and tools consist of the investment by the MNCs, trade relations, technological assistance etc. These tools are designed and operated in such a manner that the poor countries come under the influence of the capitalist countries. Neo-colonialism as a phenomena has been in existence in the international politics after the Second World War.


It is a position of indifference adopted by a country towards a war between two or more countries in particular and towards controversial international issues in general. The status of neutrality of a country is recognized in the international law. The neutrality assumes significance during a war when the neutral country is totally aloof from both the parties engaged in war. Switzerland is an ideal example of a neutral State.

Non-Agression Pact

It is an agreement between two or more countries, which binds its parties to declare that they would not organize military aggression against each other. The Non-Agression pact reduces the tensions between the countries and facilitates peace and mutual trust in their relations.

Nuclear Umbrella

The system of security maintained by a country for protection during a nuclear war is referred to as the Nuclear Umbrella.