Competitive Exams: Political Science Study Material: Glossary S

Political Science Glossary: S

Sanctions

It means imposing restrictions by a country or a group of countries against another country whose policies or practices are not approved by them. Sanctions consist of the restriction on trade flow, supply of technology or armaments, snapping diplomatic contacts, cultural exchanges, etc. For example, many countries imposed sanctions against the white regime of South Africa due to its policy of apartheid against the native black population.

Sarvodaya

It literally means the welfare of all. The philosophy of Sarvodaya was propounded by Gandhiji and Vinoba Bhave. The ideology of Sarvodaya stands for the peaceful and gradual socio-economic changes ensuring the continuous welfare of all the people.

Secularism

The concept of secularism refers to the separation of religion from politics. In a secular State, there is no State religion and every person has freedom to adopt and pursue the religious faith of his/her choice. India is also a secular country. However, the Indian concept of secularism is more positive, which means equal treatment of all the religions ( ‘Sarva Dharma Sambhava’ ) and simultaneously protection of valid interests of the religious minorities.

Sit down Strike

This is a form of strike when the workers/employees go for work in their respective places of duty but do not perform any work. Thus, they keep on sitting in their place of work without doing any work. This is also known as the pen down strike.

Snap poll

This refers to the mid-term elections which are held within a short notice as a result of a sudden and surprising dissolution of the Legislature. The elections of 1971 after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha is an example of the snap poll.

Social Justice

The idea of social justice denotes a social condition where there is a social equality, and exploitation of the weaker section is absent. In broad terms, it ensures an equal opportunity to all for development and growth. It is one of the principles included in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution. In practical politics, it means the amelioration of the weaker sections and the backward classes by providing them a special treatment and facilities.

Socialism

The ideology of socialism is just opposed to individualism and capitalism. It strives to socialise the ownership of the means of production and distribution through gradual control by the democratic means. It wants to evolve a society which is characterised by equality, welfare of all and the equal opportunity of development to all. Socialism realizes its objective through the agency of the State. The State is considered the representative of the public interest. Though the right to private property is recognised under the socialism, it is regulated by law in public interest.

Socialistic pattern of Society

The idea and programme of a socialistic pattern of society was enunciated by the Congress party in its Avadi session in 1955. This refers to a society characterised by an equal opportunity and equality of status to all, removal of exploitation, amelioration of conditions of the weaker sections. This is another name of the socialism in India.

Sovereignty

Sovereignty means the right to own and control some area of the world It has, nowadays, nothing to do with monarchy, which might seem to be implied by the connotation of sovereign, but entirely refers to the idea of independent rule by a country or institution over a certain territory or set of political concerns. Thus a country might dispute the sovereignty of an island over which another country had established control, claiming that they had the right to rule.

Starred and unstarred questions

When a member wants oral answer to his questions from a Minister in the House, such questions are called the starred questions. Supplementary questions can be asked after the answer to such a question.

When the answer is demanded by the members of the House in written, such a question is called the unstarred question. There is no provision of supplementary questions after the written reply.

Shadow Cabinet

It is a notional Cabinet formed by the main Opposition party in the Parliament wherein the members are assigned certain special functions to perform. Such members lead the Opposition during the discussions in the Parliament. It is also known as the ‘Cabinet-in-waiting’

This system not only provides a Government but also an effective Opposition. Further, it helps in training the members in the art of Governance even while in Opposition. The system can function only in the Parliamentary form of Government having only two political parties. It functions well in the United Kingdom.

Subordinate legislation

The rules and regulations made by the Government within the purview of the authority delegated by the Legislature are called subordinate legislation.

Split

It means division in a party as some members of the party leave it and they either join an other party or form a new party. The split in a party becomes inevitable when its leaders hold an irreversible position of confrontation. Split is the common feature of the Indian political parties on petty issues.

Stars and Stripes

This is the name of the National Flag of the USA. which depicts many thick lines and as many Stars as there are States in the USA.

Syndicalism

This is a form of socialism, which originated in France in later 19th century. Syndicalism aims at giving ownership and controls of the industries in the hands of the workers by adopting a violent means such as general strike and sabotage etc. French thinker Sorel was the chief profounder of the Syndicalism.