Competitive Exams: Models of E-Governance
Five important models of e-governance have been identified, which can be used as a guide in designing e-government initiatives depending on the local situation and governance activities that are expected to be performed. These models are:
The Broadcasting Model
The model is based on dissemination/broadcasting of useful governance information, which is in the public domain into the wider public domain with ICT and convergent media. The strength of the model rests upon the fact that a more informed citizenry is better able to judge the functioning of existing governance mechanisms and make an informed opinion about them. Consequently, they become more empowered to exercise their rights and responsibilities. Widespread application of this model corrects = information failure situations'by providing people with the relevant information relating to the governance sphere to make informed opinion and impact governance processes.
The Critical Flow Model
The model is based on disseminating/channeling information of critical value to the targeted audience or into the wider public domain with ICT and convergent media. The strength of this model is that ICT makes the concept of ‘distance’ and ‘time’ redundant when information is hosted on a digital network, and this could be used advantageously by instantly transferring the critical information to its strategic user group located anywhere or by making it freely available in the wider public domain.
The Comparative Analysis Model
This model is highly significant model for developing countries and can be used for empowering people.
E-Advocacy/Mobilisation and Lobbying Model
This model builds the momentum of real-world processes by adding the opinions and concerns expressed by virtual communities. This model helps the global civil society to impact on global decision-making processes. It is based on setting up a planned, directed flow of information to build strong virtual allies to complement actions in the real world. Virtual communities are formed which share similar values and concerns and these communities in turn link up with or support real-life groups/activities for concerted action. Hence, it creates a diversity of virtual community and the ideas, expertise and resources are accumulated through this virtual form of networking. In addition, it is able to mobilise and leverage human resources and information beyond geographical, institutional and bureaucratic barriers and use it for concerted action.
The Interactive-Service Model
It opens avenues for direct participation of individuals in governance processes and brings in greater objectivity and transparency in decision-making processes through ICT. Fundamentally, ICT has the potential to bring in every individual in a digital network and enable interactive (two-way) flows of information among them. Under this model, the various services offered by the Government become directly available to its citizens in an interactive manner. It does so by opening up an interactive Government to Consumer to Government (G2C2G) channel in various aspects of governance, such as election of government officials (e-ballots); redressing online of specific grievances; sharing of concerns & providing expertise; opinion polls on various issues; etc.