Competitive Exams: Documentation

The documentary sources are important sources of information for a researcher. A document is anything in writing a record, files or diaries, published or unpublished-which can be extracted and used in research. It is very valuable source of information for research either in management or in social science. It may comprises office files, business and legal papers, biographies, official and unofficial records, letters, proceedings of any courts, committees, societies, assemblies and parliaments, enactments, constitution, reports of surveys or research of commissions, official statistics, newspapers editorials, special articles, company news, cases or company directors reports etc. Documentation is the process of collecting and extracting the documents which relevant research.

Documents may be classified into

  1. Personal documents: Personal documents are those are written by or on behalf of individuals. They may include autobiographical, biographies diaries memories letters observations and inscriptions, which are primarily written for the use and satisfaction of individuals and which can be utilized for research purposes. Personal documents play a very vital role in research.

  2. Company documents

  3. Consultants report and published materials

  4. Public documents

Sources and tabulations

It is the process of condensation of the data for convenience, in statistical processing, presentation and interpretation of the information.

“Classified and arranged facts speak of themselves, and narrated they are as dead as mutton” This quote is given by J R Hicks. The process of dividing the data into different groups (viz. Classes) which are homogeneous within but heterogeneous between themselves, is called a classification. It helps in understanding the salient features of the data and also the comparison with similar data. For a final analysis it is the best friend of a statistician.

A good table is one which has the following requirements:

  1. It should present the data clearly, highlighting important details.

  2. It should save space but attractively designed.

  3. The table number and title of the table should be given. +

  4. Row and column headings must explain the figures therein.

  5. Averages or percentages should be close to the data.

  6. Units of the measurement should be clearly stated along the titles or headings.

  7. Abbreviations and symbols should be avoided as far as possible.

  8. Sources of the data should be given at the bottom of the data.

  9. In case irregularities creep in table or any feature is not sufficiently explained, references and foot notes must be given.

  10. The rounding of figures should be unbiased.

Classification and tabulation

The data is classified in the following ways: 1. According to attributes or qualities this is divided into two parts:

  1. Simple classification

  2. Multiple classification.

Classification based on class interval

According to variable or quantity or classification according to class intervals.

Classification according to class intervals or variables: The data which is expressed in numbers (quantitative data), is classified according to class-intervals. While forming class-intervals one should bear in mind that each and every item must be covered. After finding the least value of an item and the highest value of an item, classify these items into different class-intervals. For example if in any data the age of 100 persons ranging from 2 years to 47 years In deciding on the grouping of the data into classes, for the purpose of reducing it to a manageable form, we observe that the number of classes should not be too large. If it were so then the object of summarization would be defeated. The number of classes should also not be too small because then we will miss a great deal of detail available and get a distorted picture. As a rule one should have between 10 and 25 classes, the actual number depending on the total frequency. Further, classes should be exhaustive; they should not be overlapping, so that no observed value falls in more than one class. Apart from exceptions, all classes should have the same length.

Qualitative Classification: When facts are grouped according to the qualities (attributes) like religion, literacy, business etc. the classification is called as qualitative classification.

  1. Simple Classification: It is also known as classification according to Dichotomy. When data (facts) are divided into groups according to their qualities, the classification is called as ‘Simple Classification’ Qualities are denoted by capital letters (A, B, C, D ____) while the absence of these qualities are denoted by lower case letters (a, b, c, d, … Etc.)

  2. Manifold or multiple classification: In this method data is classified using one or more qualities. First, the data is divided into two groups (classes) using one of the qualities. Then using the remaining qualities, the data is divided into different subgroups. For example, the population of a country is classified using three attributes: Sex, literacy and business

Scope of managerial research

Management Research (MR) is an international journal dedicated to advancing the understanding of management in private and public sector organizations through empirical investigation and theoretical analysis. MR attempts to provide an international dialogue between researchers and thereby improve the understanding of the nature of management in different settings and, consequently, achieve a reasonable transfer of research results to management practice in several contexts. MR is especially dedicated to foster the general advancement of management scholarship among iberoamerican scholars and/or those academics interested in iberoamerican issues. Iberoamerica is defined broadly to include all of Latin America, Latino populations in North America, and Spain/Portugal. However, submissions are encouraged from all management scholars regardless of ethnicity or national origin and manuscripts should not be limited to themes dealing with iberoamerican populations. MR is a multidisciplinary outlet open to contributions of high quality, from any perspective relevant to the field and from any country. MR intends to become a supranational journal which gives special attention to national and cultural similarities and differences world-wide. This is reflected by its international editorial board and publisher and its sponsorship by the Iberoamerican Academy of Management. MR is open to a variety of perspectives, including those that seek to improve the effectiveness of, as well, as those critical of, management and organizations. MR is receptive to research across a broad range of management topics such as human resource management, organizational behavior, organization theory, strategic management, corporate governance, and managerial economics. The management and organization contributions present in MR articles can also be grounded in the basic social disciplines of economics, psychology, or sociology. Articles can be empirical, theoretical or measurement oriented. Conceptual articles should provide new theoretical insights that can advance our understanding of management and organizations. Empirical articles should have well-articulated and strong theoretical foundations. All types of empirical methods-quantitative, qualitative or combinations-are acceptable. MR encourages the interplay between theorizing the empirical research in the belief that they should be mutually informative. MR is especially interested in new data sources. That includes models that test new theory and expand our sample pools by including alternative approaches to sampling and measurement and samples drawn from non-traditional sources (e. g. from iberoamerican firms), and the examination of the validity and reliability of such samples. MR publishes only original research as articles or research notes. Manuscripts will be considered for publication with the understanding that their contents are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Prior presentation at conference or concurrent consideration for presentation at a conference does not disqualify a manuscript from consideration by MR.