Respiratory Systems

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

  • Hypothalamus, posterior and anterior pituitary gland

  • Thyroid gland

  • Parathyroid glands

  • Adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla

  • Pancreatic islets

  • Ovary and testis

  • Adipose tissue

Cell/tissue structure and function, including hormone synthesis, secretion, action, and metabolism

  • peptide hormones

  • Steroid hormones, including vitamin D

  • Thyroid hormones

  • Catecholamine hormones

  • Renin-angiotensin system

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal processes

  • Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders (eg, subacute thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, sarcoidosis)

  • Traumatic and mechanical disorders

  • Neoplastic disorders (eg, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets, neural crest, pheochromocytoma)

  • Metabolic and regulatory processes (eg, diabetes mellitus, pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic islet disorders, adrenal disorders)

  • Vascular disorders (eg, pituitary apoplexy)

  • Systemic disorders affecting the endocrine system

  • Idiopathic disorders (eg, hirsutism)

Principles of Therapeutics

Mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the endocrine system

  • Hormones and hormone analogs

  • Stimulators of hormone production (eg, sulfonylureas)

  • Inhibitors of hormone production (eg, thiouracils)

  • Hormone antagonists

  • Potentiators of hormone action (eg, thiazolidinediones)

  • Antiobesity agents

Other therapeutic modalities (eg, surgery, radiation)

Patterns Affecting Treatment

Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

  • Emotional and behavioral factors (eg, compliance in diabetes mellitus, factitious use of insulin, psychogenic polydipsia)

  • Influence on person, family, and society

  • Occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, radiation exposure, iodine deficiency)

  • Gender and ethnic factors