Gastrointestinal Systems

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function, including alimentary canal, liver and biliary system, salivary glands and exocrine pancreas, motility, and digestion and absorption

Cell/tissue structure and function

  • Endocrine and neural regulatory functions, including GI hormones

  • Salivary, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatic secretory products, including Enzymes, proteins, bile salts, and processes

  • Synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Gastrointestinal defense mechanisms and normal flora

Abnormal processes

Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders

  • Infectious disorders (eg, peritonitis, hepatitis, gingivostomatitis, peptic ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis, traveler's diarrhea, food poisoning)

  • Inflammatory disorders (eg, cholecystitis, pancreatitis)

  • Immunologic disorders (eg, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis)

Traumatic and mechanical disorders

  • Malocclusion

  • Hiatus hernia

  • Obstruction (eg, volvulus, intussusception, esophageal atresia, annular pancreas, postsurgical obstruction)

  • Perforation of hollow viscus and blunt trauma

  • Inguinal, femoral, and abdominal wall hernias

  • Esophageal and colonic diverticula (eg, Meckel diverticulum)

Neoplastic disorders, including benign and malignant metabolic and regulatory disorders (eg, motility disorders, malabsorption, hepatic failure, cholelithiasis)

Vascular disorders (e.g., portal hypertension, hemorrhoids, ischemia, angiodysplasia)

Systemic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal system

Principles of Therapeutics

Mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal system

  • Treatment and prophylaxis of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux (eg, antacids, antisecretory drugs, motility drugs, mucosal protective agents, antibiotics)

  • Drugs to alter gastrointestinal motility (eg, cathartics, antidiarrheal drugs, antiemetic drugs, prokinetic drugs)

  • Fluid replacement (eg, oral rehydration)

  • Pancreatic replacement therapy and treatment of pancreatitis

  • Drugs for treatment of hepatic failure (eg, lactulose) and biliary disease (eg, drugs to dissolve gallstones)

  • Anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial drugs

Other therapeutic modalities (eg, surgical procedures, stents, feeding tubes)

Patterns Affecting Treatment

Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

  • Emotional and behavioral factors (eg, compliance in diabetes mellitus, factitious use of insulin, psychogenic polydipsia)

  • Influence on person, family, and society

  • Occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, radiation exposure, iodine deficiency)

  • Gender and ethnic factors