Musculoskeletal System

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

Cell/tissue structure and function

  • Biology of bones, joints, tendons, skeletal muscle

  • Exercise and physical conditioning

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal processes

Traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, fractures, sprains, strains, dislocations, repetitive motion injuries)

Neoplastic disorders (eg, osteosarcoma, metastatic disease)

Metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders (eg, dwarfism, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteodystrophy, gout)

Vascular disorders (eg, polyarteritis nodosa, bone infarcts)

Systemic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system (eg, diabetes mellitus)

Idiopathic disorders (eg, Dupuytren contracture, scoliosis, Paget disease)

Degenerative disorders (eg, disc disease, osteoarthritis)

Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders

  • Infectious disorders (eg, septic arthritis, Lyme disease, osteomyelitis)

  • Inflammatory disorders (eg, fibrositis, synovitis, tenosynovitis)

  • Immunologic disorders (eg, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, polymyalgia rheumatica)

Principles of Therapeutics

Mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics

  • Muscle relaxants

  • Antigout therapy (eg, allopurinol, colchicine, uricosuric drugs)

  • Immunosuppressive drugs (eg, glucocorticoids, gold, cytotoxic agents)

  • Drugs affecting bone mineralization (eg, diphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen analogs)

Other therapeutic modalities (eg, radiation, surgery, casts, rehabilitation)

Patterns Affecting Treatment

Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

  • Emotional and behavioral factors (eg, diet, exercise, seat belts, bicycle helmets)

  • Influence on person, family, and society (eg, osteoporosis, fractures in elderly, alcohol abuse, and fractures)

  • Occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, athletes, musicians)

  • Gender and ethnic factors (eg, bone mass)