Gastrointestinal Systems

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

  • Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

  • Glomerular filtration and hemodynamics

  • Tubular reabsorption and secretion, including transport processes and proteins

  • Urinary concentration and dilution

  • Renal mechanisms in acid-base balance

  • Renal mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis

  • Micturition

Cell/tissue structure and function, including renal metabolism and oxygen consumption, hormones produced by or acting on the kidney

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Abnormal processes

Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders

Infectious disorders

  • Upper urinary tract (eg, pyelonephritis, papillary necrosis)

  • Lower urinary tract (eg, cystitis, urethritis)

Inflammatory and immunologic disorders

  • Glomerular disorders (eg, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and IgA nephropathy)

  • Tubular interstitial disease (eg, interstitial nephritis, transplant rejection)

Metabolic and regulatory disorders

  • Renal failure, acute and chronic (eg, acute tubular necrosis)

  • Tubular and collecting duct disorders (eg, Fanconi syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, polycystic kidney disease)

  • Renal calculi

Traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, obstructive uropathy)

Neoplastic disorders, primary (eg, renal, urinary bladder and collecting system) and metastases

Vascular disorders (eg, renal artery stenosis)

Systemic diseases affecting the renal system (eg, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, amyloidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener granulomatosis)

Principles of Therapeutics

Mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the renal and urinary system

  • Diuretics, antidiuretic drugs

  • Drugs and fluids used to treat volume, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders

  • Drugs used to enhance renal perfusion (eg, dopamine)

  • Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, and antineoplastic drugs

  • Drugs used to treat lower urinary tract system (eg, incontinence, bladder function, benign prostatic hyperplasia)

Other therapeutic modalities (eg, dialysis, renal transplantation)

Patterns Affecting Treatment

Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

  • Emotional and behavioral factors (eg, drug-induced interstitial nephritis, diet)

  • Influence on person, family, and society (eg, hemodialysis, living related kidney donation, transplants)

  • Occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, heavy metals)

  • Gender and ethnic factors (eg, disease progression, urinary tract infections)